This chapter addresses the differences in prosperity and well-being that follow from the high levels of youth unemployment in the EU. Not only do the member states that were hardest hit by the economic crisis have the highest levels of youth unemployment; equally important is the rapidly widening prosperity gap between generations in Europe’s labour market. The author reviews the many EU-level initiatives taken to combat youth unemployment following the crisis. Her analysis underlines the risks involved in adopting legislative reforms that weaken employment protection specifically for young employees. Reforms of this kind have worsened the prosperity gap between generations, since they mean that younger employees receive lower salaries and enjoy less job security than their older counterparts. Against this background, the author argues, it is essential that fundamental social rights are observed in relation to all citizens, including young persons in the EU’s workforce.
Jenny Julén Votinius
Jenny Julén Votinius and Mia Rönnmar
In the analysis of how intergenerational relations play out and are met in elder law, this chapter suggests the introduction of intergenerational ambivalence into the established binary solidarity–conflict approach. The first part of the chapter lays out and situates the discourse on intergenerational relations in a wider conceptual, demographic and political context. In the second part, different manifestations of intergenerational ambivalence in elder law are discussed with examples from the area of labour law and industrial relations, against the background of the legal and policy framework in the area of intergenerational relations. Intergenerational relations, intergenerational ambivalence, elder law, labour law, industrial relations, age discrimination
Ann Numhauser-Henning, Jenny Julén Votinius and Ania Zbyszewska
The EU age discrimination ban and its weaker template as compared to other grounds of discrimination is the focus of this chapter. It begins with a thorough presentation and discussion of the CJEU’s case law in relation the 2000/78/EC Employment Equality Directive, including compulsory retirement, and continues by addressing age discrimination bans in the area of healthcare/medical care through the example of Sweden. Here, too, we recognize the weaker template and the double bind of the age discrimination ban – now creating a scope for the collective interest approach within a cost-effectiveness logic and adhering to internal comparisons of equality rather than inclusion and equality in the liberal tradition. Age discrimination, European Union, double bind, weaker template, employment, compulsory retirement, healthcare