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Elin M. Oftedal and Lene Foss

This chapter discusses how responsible start-ups are met in the health sector. Through following three companies, Voco, Cora and Medicus, we acquire insight into the world of challenges the entrepreneurs have when they introduce their technology/service to the healthcare sector. Using institutional theory, we look at the regulative, normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional framework. We use the term ‘institutional wall’ to denote a dense network of formal laws and regulation, informal norms and knowledge and beliefs that act as barriers for the entrepreneurs to access the market. We find that while there is a positive development in the regulative dimension: both the regulative and the normative dimension are set up to favour larger companies. The founders’ responses to the cognitive dimension indicate a lack of belief in Norwegian technology and thus tough access to finance.

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Bernard Naughton and Lene Foss

This chapter asks, ‘How does an academic entrepreneur pursue responsible research commercialisation?’ Section 13.1 briefly describes the research frontier on academic entrepreneurship and argues for new knowledge on how university-based scientists can commercialise in a responsible way. Section 13.2 describes the empirical context, focusing on UK healthcare digitalisation and the academic policy context. Section 13.3 briefly describes a framework and methodology, followed by the narrative case study discussion in Section 13.4. The narrative case study identifies how this entrepreneur achieves his goals in the academic context and explains the barriers to technology commercialisation. This case also assesses the level of responsibility associated with the professor’s innovation and examines the importance of a psychological contract for an academic with an insecure position. Section 13.5 discusses the impact of our findings on current UK policy and practice and Section 13.6 concludes by highlighting the implications and considerations for theory and practice.

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Lene Foss and Colette Henry

This chapter critically explores how gender is conceptualized in extant innovation research scholarship. The authors analyse a selection of published research articles, categorizing them according to the various themes adopted: traditional innovation and definitional issues; management styles, performance and teams; organisational structures and networks; and gendered stereotypes, feminist resistance, and gendered processes of innovation. The chapter also considers how researchers define innovation, and how they illustrate the relationship between gender and innovation. Findings indicate that published scholarship in this field lacks a robust discussion of the relationship between gender and innovation, with few articles positioning themselves within specific gender perspectives. The field has become restricted to the extent that only male innovation norms are studied and highlighted. The authors conclude that innovation research is lagging behind in terms of its perspectives on how gender is ‘done’, compared to other fields such as entrepreneurship where feminist epistemology is more developed. Avenues worthy of future research are identified.

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Tatiana Iakovleva, Elin Oftedal and Lene Foss

When studies identify different types of dynamic capabilities, scholars agree that the field lacks empirical evidence of new firms and the role of dynamic capabilities in their survival and development (Zahra et al., 2006). Responding to this call, we aim to answer the following research question: how do firms featuring emerging technology develop absorptive and adaptive capabilities in their commercialization process? A multiple case study of three new innovative firms operating in the drilling and exploration segment of the Norwegian petroleum industry suggests that for small innovative firms in early stages of the commercialization process, absorptive capacity may be especially crucial for the development of an innovative product, while adaptive capability seems necessary for a successful commercialization process and firm survival. Key words: absorptive capability, adaptive capability, commercialization, innovation, emerging firms, petroleum industry

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Colette Henry, Barbara Orser, Susan Coleman, Lene Foss and Friederike Welter

Public policy is a key element within the entrepreneurial ecosystem in that policy has the potential to shape venture creation behavior and entrepreneurial outcomes. In response to studies documenting a gender gap in entrepreneurial activity, government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This 13-nation study draws on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused SME/entrepreneurship policies and to ask: How — and to what extent — do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries? A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus, highlighting countries where policy is weak but practice is strong and vice versa. Recommendations for future research are advanced.

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Colette Henry, Helen Lawton Smith, Viviana Meschitti, Lene Foss and Pauric McGowan

The ability to create, develop and manage effective networks is important for academics. Networks can create entrepreneurial and commercialisation opportunities, act as important vehicles for career advancement, help to highlight achievements, and facilitate individuals’ career progression. However, while men’s success in gaining promotion has been attributed to their effective use of networks, women do not appear to have benefitted to the same extent. This chapter draws on qualitative empirical data from the TRIGGER project to explore critically the perceived barriers and potential benefits of networking for women academics. Adopting ecosystems as a theoretical lens, the authors explore the perceived barriers and potential benefits of networking for women academics.

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Lene Foss, Tatiana Iakovleva, Jill Kickul, Anne Solheim and Elin Oftedal