There is a perceived need for more conceptual studies to better understand gendered aspects of innovation, which this chapter addresses by investigating to what extent social innovation studies could enrich gendered innovation studies and vice versa, owing to their similarities and differences in scope and depth, in a way that helps the understanding and promoting of gender-inclusive innovation policy, research and practice. The conceptual study exposes four mutually reinforcing potentials, including the establishment of new institutions alongside transforming the existing ones, making an explicit distinction between inclusiveness in the process of developing innovation and in the results of innovation processes, acknowledging and including a wider spectrum of actors, industries, sectors and innovations as relevant to innovation policy, research and practice, and making a specification of distinct social ends of gender-inclusive innovation. This motivates the establishment of ‘gendered social innovation’ as a new research stream.
Bengt Johannisson, Marcela Ram'rez Pasillas and Malin Lindberg
This chapter conceptualizes and operationalizes the potential of social capital in the making of sustainable strategies for individual firms in localized clusters as well as for the clusters as collectives. Global competitiveness is created out of local collaboration between firms that to a varying degree are internationalized, thereby building generic ‘glocal’ strategies. These strategies are in turn energized by the individual and collective social capital that originates in the egocentric personal networks of the local firms and the sociocentric personal network that the overall cluster of firms constitutes. The personal ties between firms that build these networks concern business or social exchange or a combination of the two. We inform how these features of network ties can be operationalized to provide a database for comparative studies of localized clusters of firms. The overall localized social capital that the cluster contains is activated through spontaneous self-organizing as well as formal organizing. The interaction between the spontaneous and formal structures turns the cluster into an ‘organizing context’, that is, an enacted environment for the local firms that is co-constructed by themselves. To illustrate how clusters build organizing contexts that accommodate glocal strategies by accumulating and using social capital, we tell the story of a Swedish community (Lammhult) and its firm cluster. This is known as ‘The kingdom of furniture’. The proposed model of personal networking and the illustrated example together inform how local actors may successfully initiate a process that aims at the creation of viable glocal strategies anchored in personal relations and networks. A ‘first mover advantage’ enables the cluster representatives to define what further enforcements external private and public bodies may contribute with.
Malin Lindberg, Eira Andersson, Lisa Andersson and Maria Johansson
Using forestry and mining as empirical cases, the chapter analyses to what extent gender equality efforts in men-dominated industries can be understood as organizational innovations and how the degree of newness in these efforts affects the prospects of evoking structural changes in the gendered patterns of these industries. In the studied gender-equality efforts in one major forestry company and one major mining company in Sweden, carried out during the last ten years, innovative measures of creative workshops, cooperation with gender researchers, and challenging masculinities are identified. Their level of contextual innovativeness is high, although their universal innovativeness is low. The gendered aspects of the innovativeness encompass identification of hitherto unmet needs of gender equality among individuals, organizations and society to some extent. The prospects of the measures evoking structural change in a transformative way vary, with challenging masculinities exposing the highest potential, but only if thoroughly realized.