In light of the scientific evidence confirming that tobacco consumption poses a higher risk of cancer and deaths, and therefore constitutes a significant threat to global public health, Taiwan has implemented a myriad of tobacco control measures under its Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (THPA) in light of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, the THPA faces new legal challenges raised by the emergence of e-cigarettes. This chapter examines Taiwan’s current regulatory framework relating to e-cigarettes and explores the regulatory gaps by identifying the key legal and ethical issues. By closely scrutinizing the proposed e-cigarette regulations and the justifications put forward by the government, the chapter assesses multiple policy options and endeavors to determine an optimal institutional design for a more rounded approach to e-cigarette control policies. Where relevant, the chapter also offers a contextual analysis of China’s e-cigarette regulation (or lack thereof) as well as key issues on tobacco control.