This chapter discusses the understandings, practices and influences upon management in contemporary Mongolia. It draws on a rich dataset of 45 in-depth qualitative interviews with Mongolian senior management practitioners. The sample of participants consists of three groups _ ‘socialist era’, ‘transitional era’ and ‘non-native’ Mongolian managers _ representing the key categories of managers currently working in Mongolian organizations. The discussion explores the understandings of management and managerial roles in the Mongolian context. The authors also offer insights into the specific practices that characterize management in Mongolia, and explain their occurrence through examining a range of interconnected influencing factors: from nomadic cultural heritage and the legacy of socialism, to the country’s unique trajectory of economic transition from socialism to capitalism, and the political and legal structures that shape the stability of the business environment in present-day Mongolia. The chapter concludes with implications for managers and political authorities in the Mongolian context.