Small business social responsibility (SBSR) and social entrepreneurship (SE) are two concepts that address societal value creation by small and medium sized organizations. This chapter takes the inherent hybridity of both forms as a starting point to ask where differences lie and which roles these concepts play for society across the globe. We argue that SE in developed countries complements welfare state organizations and serves as a societal R & D department, whereas it tends to substitute welfare state organizations in developing nations. Similarly, SBSR in developed nations has a greater focus on efficiency and ‘no harm’, whereas it places more emphasis on providing public goods in developing nations. We take this finding as a basis to argue for a greater integration of these four strands of research. In doing so, we identify four main insights which include the acknowledgement of multiple layers of hybridity, the integration of an agentic and contextual perspective, the importance of integrating societal impact with internal sustainability, as well as the understanding of when and how cooperation and networks work best for social value creation.
Markus Beckmann, Stefan Schaltegger and Nancy E. Landrum
Taking the viewpoint of responsible management, this chapter develops a conceptual perspective on sustainability management and discusses its research implications. It shows that sustainability management (a) addresses a specific form of responsibility (to manage the long-term creation of value and the reduction of disvalue in the ecological, social, and economic dimension in an integrative manner),( b) responds to the expectations and needs of specific others (natural and social environments on the micro-, meso-, and macro-level), (c) refers to specific responsibility objects (life-cycle, value chain, and consumption-related effects), (d) uses specific tools and (e) unfolds as the interplay of specific responsibility roles (explicit and implicit sustainability managers as well as sustainable managers) that can display agency for sustainability. Topics for further research are discussed and scholars are invited to explore the relationship between sustainable and responsible management.