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Michael Faure and Wang Hui

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Ta-Wei Tang, Ya-Yun Tang, Michael Chih-Hung Wang and Tsai-Chiao Wang

Hotels can attract customers by adopting artistic strategies and leveraging local cultural resources. By using artistic service innovation strategies, hotels can provide unique additional value and an unforgettable sensory experience to their customers. Thus an artistic service innovation strategy provides hotels with a sustained competitive advantage and contributes to their profits. In the hotel industry, effective human resource practices can be considered as the driving force for a hotel’s development of new service. To achieve artistic strategies, hotels should develop a self-aligned system of high-performance human resource practices to enhance employees’ abilities, motivation, and opportunities for providing unique additional value or memorable new service to customers. Based on this human resource-based perspective, this research explores mechanisms through which high-performance human resource practices assist managers in appropriately arranging resources to assist hotels in successfully engaging in artistic service, resulting in better operational performance.

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Michael Behrisch, Daniel Krajzewicz, Peter Wagner and Yun-Pang Wang

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Water Supply in a Mega-City

A Political Ecology Analysis of Shanghai

Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

With the increasing threat of depleted and contaminated water supplies around the world, this book provides a timely and much needed analysis of how cities should manage this precious resource. Integrating the environmental, economic, political and socio-cultural dimensions of water management, the authors outline how future mega-city systems can maintain a high quality of life for its residents.
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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

This chapter introduces the problem that this book addresses: how do societies come to be constructed in such a way that residents cannot drink the water that is supplied to them? The example of the supply of water to Shanghai is taken as a case through which to examine this question. Shanghai, it is argued, is an assemblage of interacting actors. This book examines the properties and characteristics of four principal actors: the hydro-geological conditions and rivers that provide water; the people, corporations and institutions within Shanghai who use and pollute the water; the institutions of central and other governments that regulate the use of the rivers and the discharges into them; and the infrastructures that governments and corporations have built to manage the river. The chapter concludes by outlining the organisation of the chapters through which the book addresses the question.

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

This chapter analyses the demand for, and supply of, water to Shanghai in relation to water quality and variations in availability. The population of Shanghai is growing rapidly. This and declining water quality in its traditional water supply sources has forced Shanghai to become mainly reliant on water from the Changjiang. Since annual water demand is 0.55 per cent of the river’s flow, the Shanghai government does not manage demand for water in the city. Meeting rising demand is dependent on maintaining and expanding the extraction, treatment and supply systems that are ageing and not capable of delivering potable water to consumers. Low flows in the winter season raise the risk of saltwater intrusions, disrupting the system (which has limited storage capacity). The complex intergovernmental responsibilities for water allow other agencies to build water projects (e.g. the South–North Water Transfer System) that are detrimental to Shanghai without considering Shanghai’s situation.

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

Shanghai is critically dependent on the Changjiang, China’s largest river, for its water supply. The flow is very stable from year to year but has strong seasonal variation with 70 per cent of flow in the summer season. The total flow is robust in the face of significant human influences. The annual flow is 900 billion cubic metres and only 0.55 per cent of this is taken for Shanghai’s water supply. No significant threats exist to the total volume of water available but there are threats from seasonal low flows, diversions of water to other users, deteriorating water quality and salt water intrusions that affect the main water supply intakes for Shanghai. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam has induced changes to the monthly flow regime, reducing flows in October to fill the dam before the low flow season and raising flows January to March as that water is used for power generation.

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

Chapter 4 explains the properties of China’s system of water management, as it relates to water supply in Shanghai. The chapter treats this system as an outcome of scale-making, in which socio-environmental regions – such as basins or jurisdictions – are constructed to serve water politics. The chapter introduces in turn China’s administrative hierarchy, with its divisions of responsibilities between ministries and overlapping responsibilities between different levels of government. New scales of government have emerged, such as river basin commissions and other reorganisations at a more local scale, and new attempts to manage the use of water and levels of pollution. The scales over which governments exercise power are being altered, partially in response to the scales at which corporations, non-government organisations and corporations act.