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Steve Kennedy and Nancy Bocken

Business model innovation for sustainability offers responsible managers a practice that enables the (re-)consideration of how they care for and deliver value to stakeholder constituents, and create solutions to key sustainability challenges such as climate change, biodiversity and poverty. In this chapter we seek to provide an overview of key themes within the field of business model innovation for sustainability in relation to responsible management. In particular, we give consideration to conceptualisations of business models for sustainability, identification of patterns of business model components, understanding the innovation process, unpacking the innovation challenges, and providing tools and frameworks. Based on this overview we offer three opportunities for responsible management research to further help responsible managers to innovate business models for sustainability: (1) developing context sensitivity to connect business models to the needs of socio-ecological systems; (2) enhancing approaches to experimentation through new tools and frameworks, and; (3) investigating new ways of innovating business models for sustainability through changing components of value proposition, creation and capture.

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Nancy M.P. Bocken and Samuel W. Short

Business model innovation for a circular economy has become core to contemporary sustainability research and practice, but does it go far enough? While circular economy initiatives have closed and narrowed resource loops to some extent, overall consumption continues to rise offsetting much of the benefits. A further paradigm shift is necessary, going beyond existing solutions, towards a broader societal-wide approach to deliver a sufficiency-based circular economy. That is, a society where excessive levels of consumption (and production) are curtailed at their root cause to better satisfy the health and wellbeing needs of the individual consumer, broader society and global environment. We present sufficiency examples in the food and clothing sector and explore how such approaches can augment existing circular economy solutions. We present a framework to better understand how industry, society and policymakers might collaborate more effectively in designing and implementing long-term initiatives for moving towards a sufficiency-based circular economy.