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Per Strömblad

For several decades, Sweden has been a country of immigration, during which process multicultural diversity has been built up. Nevertheless, equal opportunity despite ethnic or national origin seems to be a distant goal, rather than something indisputably safeguarded in a democratic welfare society of the globalization era. In light of unequal preconditions, not least in the labour market, there has for a long time been a political ambition to cultivate entrepreneurship in the immigrant population. An increasing level of self-employment – most preferably in groups that otherwise struggle hard to compete in the labour market – is expected to stimulate employment, both to the benefit of the actual entrepreneur, thus being able to make a living, and in terms of the possibility for small businesses to expand and contribute to the creation of new jobs in the economy. The attractiveness of such a win-win plan notwithstanding, reality seems to be hard to comprehend and influence. This chapter describes and discusses conditions for entrepreneurship among immigrants in Sweden. Specifically, the question of the role of public policy initiatives in this regard will be addressed. As the results from this analysis will show, there may be reasons to suspect housing segregation to be an independent factor influencing the entrepreneurial level of ambition in Sweden.

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Anna Parkhouse and Per Strömblad

This chapter analyses the institutional preconditions of political entrepreneurship for EU migration and integration policies. The main focus of this chapter is to identify the potential roles that European political entrepreneurs may play. In addition, this study also explores Europeans’ attitudes towards migrants along with cross-national institutional differences in focus. The authors argue that immigration and migration to Europe are necessary to handle Europe’s demographic challenges. However, the large influx of refugees in 2015 created political overload on individual member states, resulting in the reintroduction of territorial border controls and restrictive migration policies. As a consequence, EU institutions have acted entrepreneurially to assist member states with improving the integration of potential labour migrants and refugees in Europe. Further, this study also argues for the importance of changes in European mindsets, leaving this study to identify necessary top-down and bottom-up changes to promote European integration.