This chapter examines the efforts to set intellectual property standards in the Asia-Pacific region through the development of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). It begins by examining the regulatory convergence narrative, focusing on efforts to harmonize Asian intellectual property standards through the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional, and plurilateral agreements. The chapter then turns to the regulatory divergence narrative, discussing the region’s inherent nation-based differences, the development considerations involved in developing Asian intellectual property laws and policies, and the growing rivalry between the TPP/CPTPP and the RCEP. This chapter concludes by suggesting that neither the convergence narrative nor the divergence narrative presents a complete and satisfactory story for a region as large, complex, and diverse as Asia. Instead, the chapter contends that the region is likely to see ‘regulatory crossvergence’—a simultaneous convergence and divergence of regulatory standards. Such crossvergence not only has resulted in the region’s development of compromising standards but has also been highly indicative of the ongoing and future standard-setting efforts in Asia.
Peter K. Yu
This chapter aims to provide a brief survey on three distinct sets of issues, all related to biobanks. The first set concerns the human rights involved in the collection, processing, use, or storage of the biological materials collected by biobanks. The second set pertains to the human rights issues implicated by the development of scientific productions utilizing the collected materials. The third set relates to the human rights obligations of three types of biobanks: public biobanks, private biobanks and biobanks formed out of public-private partnerships (PPPs).The goal of this chapter is not to provide detailed analyses of these three sets of human rights issues. Instead, it aims to offer preliminary sketches of the various human rights issues that can be implicated by biobanks. It is my hope that this chapter will highlight the complexities concerning human rights issues in the area of biobanking and thereby generate greater interest and attention from the medical community, biobank operators and funders, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and the mass media.
Peter K. Yu
The history of intellectual property laws in China is a history of legal transplants. From the introduction of intellectual property laws during the late Qing dynasty and the Republican era to the recent laws and amendments adopted by the People’s Republic, legal transplant was the primary means by which the modern Chinese intellectual property regime was established. This chapter begins with a brief history of the transplant of intellectual property laws in China. It then examines the drawbacks and benefits of legal transplants. The chapter further discusses four key questions that policymakers should consider when transplanting laws from abroad. The answers to these questions, in turn, may result in not only the transplant, but also transformation, of these laws. Although this chapter focuses on China, the discussion here is likely to be relevant to other jurisdictions.
Peter K Yu
This chapter critically examines the intellectual property rights holders’ growing use of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) to resolve international intellectual property disputes. It begins by highlighting the criticisms of ISDS, including those that are related to the arbitration process, the arbitrators’ interpretations and final arbitral outcomes. The chapter then examines the various upgrades that the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement has provided to the ISDS mechanism. It concludes by outlining the conceptual and institutional improvements that could strengthen ISDS.