Latin America is the site of overlapping forms of voluntary and involuntary migration across borders and within them. The region has a long history of immigration, emigration and rural–urban migration to cities. It also has significant experience as a site of expelling and receiving refugees. Less well documented is the considerable internal displacement of populations due to development schemes, natural disasters and violence. These multiple forms of migration are provoking a new debate on the definition of refugee status and the forms of protection to which displaced populations are entitled. For the most part, Latin American governments have sought to manage, rather than prevent, forced migration. In some cases, displacement crises have triggered new forms cooperation and partnership within and across borders which may also help consolidate a stronger regional security community.