eHealth systems, supported by data analytics, have increasingly facilitated data driven and/or supported decision-making practices across health sectors. eHealth proponents suggest that these strategies may improve healthcare processes and improve patient outcomes. Critics, in contrast, suggest that they lead to data-driven management (DDM) systems that create top-down decision-making, data-driven bureaucracies. This chapter examines the drivers of data analytic–supported eHealth systems across industrialized economies and their associated impacts and implementation challenges. It further considers how eHealth systems are impacting on the quality of health services, including in the Australian context. This includes a systemic review of the eHealth literature, supported by a case study analysis on an Australian eHealth initiative, entitled ‘Choosing Wisely Pathology’. It concludes that two main factors, collaboration and participation, underpin the successful implementation and ongoing adoption of eHealth systems.