Simon C. Parker
Simon C. Parker
Raquel Fonseca and Simon C. Parker
Few cross-country comparisons exist on the topic of third age entrepreneurship. We attempt to fill this gap by assembling comparable data on the United States, England and other European countries. Our contribution is threefold. First, we analyze drivers of self-employment among older workers across countries. Second, we investigate the relationship between self-employment rates and age groups, comparing different countries to understand the role played by country-level institutional variables. Third, we discuss policy implications. Key results are as follows. English and American institutions appear not to push older workers into self-employment; Southern Europe’s institutional rigidities and limited opportunities for flexible full-time work at older ages might explain the push into self-employment observed there. Among workers not retired, those wanting part-time work are largely found in self-employment. These facts challenge policy-makers to promote self-employment as an antidote to limited pension coverage and low incomes. Results lead us to suspect that successful entrepreneurship in old age is associated with earlier successful entrepreneurship experience. Hence, policies strengthening business start-up quality are to be encouraged.
Marton Racz and Simon Parker
This chapter provides a constructive critique of responsible management. It starts by arguing that responsible management does little but extend managerial power and control over employees in more sophisticated ways. Moreover, in terms of enacting change, we argue that problems of limited agency are often overlooked in responsible management research leading to a naïve optimism in the power of individuals and a dismissal of existing political, organizational and cultural contexts. Subsequently, we suggest, via a discussion of the “third wave” of critical management studies and the idea of agonism, ways in which responsible management research could become more critical and more potent. In doing so, we highlight the need for responsible management research to look more at carefully selected collectives rather than individuals, both in the ways in which researchers try to enact change and engage managers and in the way they conceptualize responsibility in the first place.