The recent economic turbulence was characterized by recessionary dynamics, differentiated problems in specific territories and changes in science, technology and innovation. In this context, the chapter debates the notion of resilience as an adaptive capacity that allows overcoming negative effects of internal and external shocks, and creating growth trajectories in different socio-economic systems. The chapter gives emphasis to the need to delimit the system to be analysed and suggests that a “regional innovation system” is a good candidate to analyse in the study of science, technology and innovation resilience. The text also suggests that the analysis of systemic failures is crucial for a deeper understanding of internal fragilities. The chapter concludes with implications for the resilience of innovation.