As broad interest in entrepreneurship increases, one can find researchers, educators, policy-makers, and even investors speaking about the ‘entrepreneurial mindset’. But what, exactly is an entrepreneurial mindset? And how can it be measured effectively? The modern view of an entrepreneurial mindset considers cognitions and behaviours as well as more enduring personality dispositions. The challenge, of course, is to identify the dimensions that matter. Based on a broad literature review, 76 separate descriptions of aspects that could affect entrepreneurial behaviour were identified. Elimination of overlaps produced a list of 37 different constructs. Using the existing literature, the authors produced 116 items that were pilot tested on 400 individuals (217 females, 183 males) in South Africa. The present chapter describes the scale development in detail.
Kelly G. Shaver and Immanuel Commarmond
Christine Blanka, David Rückel, Stefan Koch and Norbert Kailer
The purpose of this chapter is to gain insights on individual intrapreneurial orientation and hence examine the intrapreneurial potential resting in IT students, as they are prime possible future technology intrapreneurs by their education. Technopreneurship has gained in importance, but due to its focus on independent technology entrepreneurs, research overlooks the value of intrapreneurial employees. An online survey was conducted, and hypotheses referring to intrapreneurial orientation and personal initiative were tested on a sample of IT students in Austria. Results reveal interesting findings concerning IT students’ intrapreneurial orientation and highlight their potential as future technology intrapreneurs. By investigating intrapreneurial orientation, the research offers a holistic view on possible entrepreneurial behaviour and underlines the relevance of intrapreneurial potential already resting in students. In addition, by combining the technological and intrapreneurship contexts, interesting insights on IT students as future technology intrapreneurs are provided.
Hanna Rydehell, Anders Isaksson and Hans Löfsten
New technology-based firms (NTBFs) face resource scarcity, especially in their early start-up phase. To perform well, these firms need to utilise existing resources and position themselves at par with other firms in order to acquire the resources they lack. This chapter examines the effects of NTBFs’ human capital and external relations on early performance (sales and employment). Although small firms possess some bundles of resources to develop themselves, NTBFs in particular need to access resources that often lie outside corporate boundaries. A survey was administered in 2016 to 401 small and young Swedish NTBFs (with an employment mean of 1.80 and an average age of 28.3 months). The authors show that founders’ business experience positively affects early business performance. They also conclude that in their very early stages, NTBFs may benefit from utilising their human capital and external relations.
Karin Hellerstedt, Caroline Wigren-Kristoferson, Maria Aggestam, Anna Stevenson and Ethel Brundin
There is increasing recognition of the importance of prior industry experience in the process of opportunity recognition and venture creation. Prior industry experiences may also represent limitations and cause lock-in effects that impose limits on the innovative height of new products and services. Questions arise about how the entrepreneur’s disembeddedness in the industry may contribute to radical innovations in a specific new industry. Using three cases as illustrative examples, the authors aim to enhance understanding of the impact of industry disembeddedness on the opportunity creation process. The findings demonstrate that being disembedded from the new industry creates an opportunity to activate past connections and transfer specific resources across spheres. They also show how building embeddedness from a disembedded position becomes instrumental for business activity that provides resources and contributes to radical innovation within a specific industry.
Amélie Wuillaume, Amélie Jacquemin and Frank Janssen
This chapter develops and tests a set of hypotheses concerning how the tone of entrepreneurial narratives affects funding success. The authors first test their propositions on a sample of projects seeking resources on a donation and reward-based crowdfunding platform (Ulule). Their results suggest that money providers on such a platform prefer narratives characterized by a relatively high emotional language. Results also indicate that the community (social) sense displayed has a particularly high influence and even dominates the influence of the emotional tone. The authors also examine the influence of the same variables on a lending- and equity-based platforms (MyMicroInvest). The results indicate that funding success is enhanced by a cognitive tone and that the sense of community stays an indicator of success. Backers on donation- and reward-based platforms seem to be motivated by the emotional dimension while funders on lending- and equity-based platform seem to be guided by cognitive considerations.
John Kitching and Marfuga Iskandarova
Freelance workers, defined as independent own-account workers who provide goods and services alone (or with co-owning partners) but do not employ others, are the most common form of small business. Freelance working reflects, in part, a desire to enjoy greater control over working life, including hours of work. Using qualitative data from interviews with 25 high-skilled freelance workers in two professional sectors, architecture and publishing, this chapter investigates freelancer control of working time. Freelancers vary in their capacity to control work-time, conditional upon their bargaining power relative to clients which, in turn, rests on a variety of client and project characteristics. Freelancers engage in a range of practices to preserve and extend control of work-time scheduling and duration, and to resist client colonisation of non-working time. The chapter recognises the occupational heterogeneity of freelance work and its impact on struggles for work-time control.