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Jeff Reid and Eric Koester

• Most undergraduate students lack deep expertise, credibility, and professional networks, all of which can be important to entrepreneurial success. How can we help them gain these assets before they even graduate? • What happens when you encounter a student who doesn’t want to start a business venture . . . yet? • How can we help more students discern what they are truly passionate about, and then use entrepreneurship as a vehicle to pursue it immediately? Many recent innovations in entrepreneurship pedagogy have significantly enhanced how students learn about topics such as evaluating opportunities using lean startup methods (Blank, Ries, Osterwalder), effecting the world around them (Sarasvathy), or developing an entrepreneurial mindset (Neck, Neck, Murray). The Creator Pedagogy builds on these efforts by providing students with a path to entrepreneurial action regardless of whether they are ready to launch their own business.

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Bastian Thomsen, Olav Muurlink and Talitha Best

Enactus is a nonprofit organization dedicated to inspiring students to tackle global issues through socially oriented entrepreneurial action. It is a substantial movement (including 72,000 students in 36 countries in 2017) that takes action learning (Reason and Bradbury, 2001), service learning (Battistoni, 2017) and experiential learning (Kolb, 2014) into the (social) entrepreneurship arena. Students execute community development projects and then compete against other university teams in project-based competitions regionally, nationally, and globally. At its core, Enactus embodies the idea that ‘now’ is the prime opportunity to engage in social entrepreneurship, and its potential benefits can positively impact student and societal beneficiaries simultaneously. Enactus is characterized by relatively short bursts of focused activity and has at this point, attracted limited research attention. In this chapter we reflect on the scholarly basis of the connection component of Enactus, focusing on the value of networking in fostering social entrepreneurship. We present a simple but powerful case where we led 12 students on an international educational trip to Ireland for two weeks, meeting with three other university Enactus teams and presenting at an entrepreneurship education research conference. The case illustrates the rapid benefits of relatively brief ‘real world’ (social) entrepreneurship programs, and the value of leveraging partner Enactus organizations to experience another culture’s view of social entrepreneurship education in action. Prior to two years ago, students at the College of Idaho (U.S.A.) had limited exposure to social entrepreneurship in any capacity. To increase enrollment and student engagement in social entrepreneurship at the College of Idaho we created a Social Entrepreneurship Education Program (SEEP). SEEP includes a new social entrepreneurship concentration for business majors, a suite of six SE courses, local service-learning projects, an international education trip, and a recognized Enactus student chapter on campus. Implementation of SEEP resulted in Enactus membership increasing from 4 students the previous year to more than 26 actively engaged members. Enactus serves as the prime platform at the C of I to engage students outside of the classroom resulting in stronger student–faculty relationships, and greater interest in the SEEP overall.

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Eric W. Liguori, Giles T. Hertz and Nelson Sebra

In 2013, two of the authors attended the International Franchise Association’s Franchise Expo held in Anaheim, California. The expo brings together over 200 franchisors, each vying to both build brand awareness and expand their reach via acquisition of new franchisees. We walked the showroom floor, spoke with many of the franchisors, and tried to resist arguing with the lucky few who proudly claimed they had no competition. Our motive in attending this expo was simple: franchising is an often-overlooked opportunity for students to engage in entrepreneurship and we wanted to gather franchise opportunity information to share with our students. We walked away with the information we sought, content we had gathered enough data to inform a few lectures and give students some collateral to consider. As we made the five-hour drive home we reflected back on what we had observed. We had seen thousands of people being pitched business opportunities, some successfully so and others not, by hundreds of franchisors (effectively, the IFA had succeeded in the deliberate facilitation of individual-opportunity nexus; Shane, 2003). As we reflected back we couldn’t help but think “wouldn’t this be a great way for our students to practice entrepreneurship?” After all, completing customer discovery, crafting compelling narratives, building brand identity, and learning to sell are core components of contemporary entrepreneurship education (cf., Ladd, 2016; Liguori, Cowden, & Hertz, 2016). It was then we decided Fresno State’s entrepreneurship capstone course (ENT 157) needed revamping.

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Jill Kickul, Lisa Gundry, Jacqueline Orr and Mark Griffiths

Social Entrepreneurship is an emerging and rapidly changing field that examines the practice of identifying, starting and growing successful mission-driven for-profit and nonprofit ventures, that is, organizations that strive to advance social change through innovative solutions. For educators teaching in this field, we advocate for a Design Thinking approach that can be integrated into social entrepreneurship education. Specifically, we believe that many of the Design Thinking principles are especially suitable and useful for educators to facilitate student learning as they create and incubate social ventures. We also advance a broader conceptual framework, which we describe as the four main “mega-themes” in social entrepreneurship education, namely innovation, impact, sustainability and scale. We offer ways in which the Design Thinking steps can be integrated and applied to each of these themes and accelerate the social venture creation process. We conclude by discussing and presenting how Design Thinking can complement an overall Systems Thinking perspective.

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Edited by Charles H. Matthews and Eric W. Liguori

The third volume of the Annals of Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy critically examines past practices, current thinking, and future insights into the ever-expanding world of Entrepreneurship education. Prepared under the auspices of the United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE), this compendium covers a broad range of scholarly, practical, and thoughtful perspectives on a compelling range of entrepreneurship education issues.