In this chapter, we develop a new typology for entrepreneurship education based on the literature in the field. The typology consist of six different approaches to entrepreneurship education, consisting of the objectives and learning activities. We separated the learning approaches into three different classes of student involvement: passive, participative (input/output focused) and self-driving (method focused). Furthermore, we separate the objectives into ‘student-centred impact’ and ‘contextual impact’, based on the influence from the education on external stakeholders. Compared to the ‘about’, ‘for’ and ‘through’ framework, our new typology allows for a more nuanced separation based on both the students’ learning activity and the educational impact in terms of time and external contact and influence. Compared to prior classification, which is somewhat teacher-centred, we move the focus to the students. The main implication from this chapter is that it enables cumulative research in the growing field of entrepreneurship education.
Torgeir Aadland and Lise Aaboen
Karin Axelsson and Mats Westerberg
There are currently some novel initiatives in Sweden where the aim is to introduce entrepreneurship broadly in teacher education programs. The purpose of this chapter is to shed light on one of these early attempts and study how entrepreneurship is conceptualized and designed in teacher education programs. In this mainly qualitative case study of a Swedish teacher education entrepreneurship module we apply interviews and surveys of both teachers and students. We use Fayolle and Gailly’s (2008) teaching model framework as an analytic lens to help provide necessary understanding in relation to our pedagogical and didactical questions. The results show how entrepreneurship education in teacher education is riddled with tensions relating to overall mission, target groups, pedagogy, content and assessments. However, there seem to be viable paths forward that might mitigate these tensions and provide a better opportunity for entrepreneurship education within the realm of teacher education.
Piritta Parkkari and Krista Kohtakangas
Recent studies have utilized practice theories to understand various aspects of entrepreneurship, but there is a lack of studies that aim to understand the phenomenon of entrepreneurship beyond individuals labelled as entrepreneurs doing entrepreneurship. This chapter aims to present a better understanding of organizations that work to promote entrepreneurship, focusing on student Entrepreneurship Society (ES) organizations in Finland. Using ethnography, it shows how these organizations were constructed as a student movement aiming to awaken students’ entrepreneurial latencies through practices enacted during a get-together event. The observed practices included little space for negotiating the meaning of entrepreneurship or why it is promoted. Multiple ideals emerged, such as valuing ‘doing’, while aiming to stay clear of ‘politics’. The findings indicate that the phenomenon of Entrepreneurship Societies reflects the dispersion and power of entrepreneurship discourse and ideology.
Magdalena Markowska and Friederike Welter
Entrepreneurial identity is emergent and develops through interaction with various actors. The previous identity literature has presumed that motives remain stable over time, yet as individuals mature their motivations and goals often change. This chapter investigates how entrepreneurs adapt their entrepreneurial self-stories to their changed goals. To achieve this we explore seven high-profile restaurateurs’ business lives and show how their stories have been reinvented over time. Three different narratives are employed to illustrate the entrepreneurs’ original career choices: dream follower, serendipitous craftsman and forced opportunist. By demonstrating how achievement motivation affects restauranteurs’ need to either belong or be distinct and thus their construction of their narrative entrepreneurial identity, our research enhances existing work on identity construction by highlighting the close relationship between restaurateurs’ career stage and their emphasis on either the need for belonging or the need for distinctiveness. To be more precise our research finds that while restaurateurs’ early identities centred on presenting themselves as chefs, their subsequent depictions are wrapped up in their social identity to a much great extent, representing the restauranteurs as whole rounded people rather limiting them to a particular role.
Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research
Edited by Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn and Eddy Laveren
Eddy Laveren, Robert Blackburn, Ulla Hytti and Hans Landström
This introduction provides an overview and commentary on the main chapters in the book. The book presents contemporary examples of European research that embrace both rigour and relevance. In doing so, the book demonstrates that both rigour and relevance is alive in entrepreneurship research. Many of the following chapters address agendas that are influenced by pragmatic questions as much as theoretical insights, showing that engaged research begins at the agenda-setting phase rather than an add-on at the end. Additionally, the volume showcases interesting new work in the area of entrepreneurial behaviour and mindsets, intrapreneurship, family businesses, the role of prior experience or its absence as a resource, funding and time allocation amongst freelancers. Whilst the chapters are focused on specific issues, they all illustrate that theoretically grounded research can have implications for practice and policy.
Bennis and O’Toole (2005) note that business schools have lost their way, generating research that is less and less relevant to practitioners. Fortunately, the author believes that the outlook for entrepreneurship research might be more positive. The author proposes a model for generating interest in research by making a distinction between the number of people that care and how much people care. The first step is to ensure that one single person cares deeply about the research. If the researcher is deeply emotionally involved, it is easier to make other people involved. The next step is to test the ideas on others. The researcher should be able to find a way that those who care about the researcher also care about the research, show interest and listen. Relevance in entrepreneurship research is not an option. It is a matter of survival.
Traditionally entrepreneurship and small business research has been regarded as a practical and relevant research field, providing knowledge to be used to solve various societal problems. As the field is becoming more and more institutionalized in the academic system, scientific rigour in research has been emphasized at the expense of relevance. In the chapter the authors strives to show that producing research with practical relevance does not conflict with the production of scientifically rigorous research. On the contrary, it is important that the implications formulated for external stakeholders are well rooted in rigorous scientific research.
Piritta Parkkari and Karen Verduijn
In this chapter, the authors have introduced three recent conversations within entrepreneurship research that diverge from ‘mainstream’, functionalist entrepreneurship research: Critical Entrepreneurship Studies, Entrepreneurship as Practice and the Radical Processual Approach. They have used the question of “Why do some become entrepreneurs and others don’t” as an illustrative tool for bringing out the conversations’ interrelations, idiosyncratic foci and ways of asking questions. All in all, the authors emphasize that it is not a matter of what approach to entrepreneurship is the ‘best’, but rather about understanding what makes them unique, and how they can complement each other, ultimately to provide spaces for novel, radical, complexified and nuanced ways of understanding and researching entrepreneurship phenomena.
Annalisa Sentuti, Francesca Maria Cesaroni and Serena Cubico
This chapter reviews family firm (FF) studies in the business and management literature, aiming to explore and outline the state of the art with regards to women’s involvement in family businesses. Through a structured literature review the authors analyzed 81 academic contributions in 2000-2017 and categorized them based on year, authors’ and research location, academic journal of publication, methodological approach, and impact. Three main results emerged. First, the study demonstrates that publications on women in family businesses more than tripled from the first nine-year phase to the second nine-year phase. Second, while academics from North America dominated early research in the 1990s, since 2000 an increasing and relevant contribution has come from European researchers. Third, concerning the topics being addressed, four main themes were identified: women in FFs; succession; women-owned FFs and female entrepreneurship; and copreneurial ventures.