Edited by Charles H. Matthews and Eric W. Liguori
Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush and Sharon Alpi
One of the most commented on and, arguably, acclaimed, contributions of the last volume of USASBE’s Annals of Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy was the entry titled “What I’ve Learned About Teaching Entrepreneurship: Perspectives of Five Master Educators” authored by Jerome Engel, Minet Schindehutte, Heidi Neck, Ray Smilor, and Bill Rossi. Engel and colleagues took time to practice deep reflection on their experiences teaching entrepreneurship and then translated their learnings into deeply meaningful insights for the field to draw from. In planning this volume, the editors believed it was important to build upon this work, so we invited five new entrepreneurship educators to share what they have learned about teaching entrepreneurship. Again, we reached out to faculty members acknowledged by their peers, leading academic organizations, their institutions, and their students to be among the very best in entrepreneurship education. And again, each of these individuals has over a decade of experience in the entrepreneurship classroom and has witnessed the rapid evolution of a very dynamic discipline. In the pages that follow Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush, and Sharon Alpi share their reflections on decades of cumulative experience both inside and outside the classroom.
Our understanding of history is shaped not only by our knowledge of the factual events of the past but also our perceptions of those events. It is our perceptions that help us make sense of what has happened and allow us to apply what we have learned from the past in the present. The following discussion is intended as an interpretive history of a remarkable organization, the United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. The purpose is not to provide a treatise but rather a selective view of the perceptions of a number of individuals privileged to hold leadership positions in the organization. The discussion begins with an overview of a number of strategic pivots taken by the leadership of the organization during particularly challenging times since just before and following the national economic crisis of 2008. The discussion is augmented by the personal recollections of three United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE) presidents who led the organization during particularly eventful periods. Jeffrey Alves, President in 2008, provides a broad perspective regarding what he views as the key strategic pivot points leading up to and following his time both as President and as a long-serving board member. Jeff Cornwall, President in 2010, presents a personal recollection of the events leading up to his decision to accept the nomination as President and the challenges the organization faced in the aftermath of the U.S. economic crisis. Finally, Heidi Neck, President in 2017, reviews a more recent period of the organization’s history. She details a significant strategic pivot made by the organization, not in response to a financial crisis, but rather in response to a crisis of strategic identity.
There is no common way to implement entrepreneurship education in higher education, and a lack of research underpinning how it practically can be done. An increasing number of students undergo entrepreneurship education, and several studies highlight a need to develop new pedagogical methods. This paper examines how visual research methods can contribute as didactic tools in entrepreneurship education. A visual-based exercise, conducted with 394 students from different disciplines, is presented and analysed, showing that images create interactive and reflective ways to see and talk about entrepreneurship, thus making students’ perceptions visible and helping educators to better student-customize their education.
Raj V. Mahto, William McDowell, Sandipen Sen and Saurabh Ahluwalia
Entrepreneurship education and training programs are attracting significant student followers in colleges and universities in the US and countries across the globe. The strong correlation between entrepreneurship and economic development has informed policymakers at various levels of government to enact policies and legislations supporting entrepreneurship that is further fueling demand for entrepreneurship education. This has notably increased the call to improve entrepreneurship education in general, and a need for greater numbers of qualified faculty to teach entrepreneurship. The limited availability of entrepreneurship faculty, however, coupled with rapid growth of entrepreneurship course offerings in colleges offers multiple opportunities for improvement. We believe the current entrepreneurship education can be transformed using the application of new technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT). In this article, we examine the transformative power of the IoT and related technologies and its current and potential impact on entrepreneurship education. The application of IoT is already disrupting many industries, transforming consumers’ lives, and changing business operations. Institutions of higher education can benefit through the application of IoT. The application of IoT can specially benefit entrepreneurship education and training programs leading to more startups by graduates. We argue that IoT allows faculty and universities to customize entrepreneurship course content for each individual student. The application of IoT empowers faculty to offer an enriching experiential learning, leverage resources, integrate various stakeholders, and engage and support students in a post-graduate phase.
The field of entrepreneurship continues to experience considerable growth, embedded in beliefs of economic development, innovation, and meritocracy. The chapter examines a new concept in entrepreneurship: compensatory entrepreneurship. It is defined as the political endorsement of entrepreneurship promotion activities, including training, incubation, and media dissemination, for the primary objective of maintaining political and/or economic control of one population over another. The paper discusses the contemporary field of entrepreneurship with the expectation of creating more awareness and dialog regarding some of the socio-political consequences of entrepreneurship promotion.
Prateek Shekhar, Aileen Huang-Saad and Julie Libarkin
Undergraduate engineering students are increasingly being exposed to entrepreneurship through curricular and co-curricular programs (Gilmartin, Chen, & Estrada, 2016). While historically, self-employment and venture creation has been the target of entrepreneurship education (Katz, 2003), recent efforts and advances in entrepreneurship education focus on developing graduates with skills to identify and develop opportunities, fostering innovation in their respective fields of work (Standish- Kuon & Rice, 2002). This shift in focus of entrepreneurship education from venture creation and conceptualization of entrepreneurship as a developable skillset rather than an innate characteristic has fueled the development of entrepreneurship programs outside of business schools in the United States (U.S.) and other parts of the world (Katz, 2003). Expanding from traditional business-focused programs, the pedagogy and content of these emergent entrepreneurship programs has evolved from traditional case-based methods to more immersive, experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education. In addition to imparting entrepreneurial content knowledge, these programs target the development of entrepreneurship-related characteristics and domain-general skills in undergraduate students. In the U.S., fueled by recent National Science Foundation initiatives in entrepreneurship such as the Epicenter Program: National Center for Engineering Pathways to Innovation (Epicenter, 2017) and I-Corps Program (NSF, 2016), entrepreneurship is gaining significant traction in higher education institutions. Using a wide variety of student-centered pedagogical approaches and formats, undergraduate entrepreneurship programs focus on preparing students to succeed in a competitive technology-driven economy by exposing them to entrepreneurial practice (e.g. opportunity identification and customary discovery) and business content knowledge. Due to this student-centered experiential learning emphasis, universities offer entrepreneurship education to undergraduates through both curricular coursework and informal co-curricular programs. Our presented work focuses on examining differences in self-efficacy outcomes resulting from engagement in these curricular and co-curricular learning experiences.
Lee J. Zane and Andrew Zimbroff
Do you want to have your students work with prototypes so they can experience the process of new product development? Do you want to help them more fully understand the concepts of Minimum Viable Product (MVP), iterative development, and user testing? If so, this hands-on class exercise is a great choice for your students to learn important product development concepts through the nexus of thought and action. Students need to understand that having a good idea does not necessarily equate to a viable product or service. They need to learn how to gather critical feedback that can be used to test and hopefully improve their ideas, or make them acceptable to the market. This exercise is designed to be the second of two 90 minute sessions on new product development. The first 90 minute session is used for lecture and textbook material where we discuss topics such as resources, new product development process, MVP, and prototyping. If your class schedule does not allocate 90 minutes to a class, mold the lecture and exercise to fit your schedule.