This chapter presents an analysis of public-sector integrity, levels of corruption and its public perceptions in Lithuania. The public administration system in Lithuania, as in other post-Soviet countries, has faced the legacies of Soviet institutions related to double standards in the public sector, shadow economy and a strong culture of bribes, favouritism and corrupted networks that are common issues in most authoritarian regimes. One of the most significant challenges for the Lithuanian public administration was introducing European Union (EU) standards and best practices before joining the EU in 2004. Nevertheless, more than two decades have not appeared to be sufficient to change citizens’ mentality about bribery and corruption. Current data from public opinion surveys indicate that Lithuanians still tend to identify the public sector as highly corrupt, although institutional indices on corruption and transparency reflect a considerably high integrity level in Lithuania. The chapter also discusses a corruption prevention model being developed in Lithuania which follows the widely known Hong Kong Independent Commission Against Corruption example.
Eglė Butkevičienė, Eglė Vaidelytė and Vaidas Morkevičius
Donna Harris and Mesharch Walto Katusiimeh
This chapter discusses corruption in the police services in Uganda and Ghana as the main case studies. Despite increasing interest, there is still a lack of understanding of what could be the underlying causes for pervasive corruption within the police service. We find that after many years of implementing police reforms, these efforts appear to have had no impact. Today, the public image of the police in Uganda and Ghana is very negative. Only suspicion, discontent, and distrust mark the relationship between the public and their police. The chapter draws attention to the historical, contextual, and social factors that drive corrupt behaviour within the police administration. It also reviews existing theoretical frameworks on the micro-foundations of corrupt behaviour and points to the fact that further research is needed to revise the formulation of anti-corruption reforms by considering the locally prevailing social and historical contexts. In order to do so, researchers may benefit from exploring behavioural influences such as identities, norms, and narratives that motivate actions and their relationships to the observed entrenched character of corrupt practices in the police.
Edited by Adam Graycar
Bonnie J. Palifka
This chapter provides a broad overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Mexico. Mexico is a microcosm in which many types of corruption flourish, despite official anti-corruption positions. As part of a transition to democracy in 2000, centralized corruption devolved into decentralized corruption, such that Mexico is now in a vicious spiral of corruption, delegitimization of government, organized crime and violence. This vicious spiral has enabled organized crime to control 80 per cent of Mexican municipalities, putting this Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development country on the verge of becoming a failed state. In response to international commitments and the escalation of corruption, Mexico has created the National Anti-corruption System (NAS), which incorporates best anti-corruption practices, including transparency, cooperation and citizen oversight. The NAS is still incomplete, but already shows both promise and the difficulties of overcoming systemic corruption. Thus, Mexico offers lessons in corruption and anti-corruption.
South African institutions under the Zuma presidency were hollowed out by patronage and factional politics resulting in a dire state of public administration with little consequence management for transgressors. There is growing pressure on the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) to bring to book those who are alleged to have captured the democratic state, including the former president. To operate independently and professionally, within a context of executive overreach and political factionalism, is a deeply challenging task. Courageous and ethical leadership is required to uphold the rule of law in a context where constitutionalism itself is under threat. Set against the background of public administration in the context of state capture in South Africa, this chapter focuses on the leadership of the NPA and the challenges the new national director of public prosecutions faces, both internally and externally, to uphold the rule of law. Positive developments to strengthen the NPA’s legitimacy and capacity to deliver on its mandate are noted, as well as the particularly daunting task faced by this key institution of criminal justice.
Thomas H. Speedy Rice, Alora Jiang and Artem Shaipov
Since its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine has been beset by public corruption and various state captures by corrupt oligarchs. The increase in corruption and inequality has sparked two major revolution movements, the last being the 2014 Euromaidan Revolution which has led to a series of reforms to combat its entrenched public corruption issue. These reform initiatives have enjoyed varying degrees of success due to obstructions of the entrenched interests. Major sectors of public corruption in Ukraine face common problems including unequal access to profitable public bidding and auction opportunities, abuse of state authorities for private protection, and a lack of transparency, which breeds opportunities for corrupt behavior. While there are still many remaining issues and a long way ahead in Ukraine’s long-term battle against corruption, the post-Euromaidan reforms are meaningful and encouraging steps in the right direction.
All jurisdictions must deal with and respond to the corrupt conduct of individual public officials from time to time. In the late 1980s, however, the Australian state of Queensland was confronted with institutional corruption on a vast scale. This chapter explores the ramifications of systemic corruption, particularly for the political system, and examines attempts to reform the broader public service in the periods before, during and immediately after a landmark inquiry which began with an investigation into police corruption before expanding to implicate the government and public service more broadly (known as the Fitzgerald Inquiry, after its commissioner, Tony Fitzgerald). This chapter argues that the inquiry not only had an immediate impact on Queensland’s government and its democratic institutions, but has had a cathartic influence on government in the state, with all subsequent administrations being defined by their response to the inquiry and the questions of institutional integrity it raised.
Gordana Marčetić and Sunčana Roksandić Vidlička
This chapter describes why, in the opinion of the authors, corruption in public administration is still a problem in Croatian society despite the existence of a solid legal framework and the development of ethical infrastructure in civil service and partly in local self-government administrative units. In order to substantiate the arguments, the authors have presented a case study, the criminal trial against the former prime minister of the Republic of Croatia, Ivo Sanader, for corruption offences. The authors also show the results of a survey about the perception of unethical conducts in public administration, which is conducted over Croatian citizens, civil servants and public servants in local self-government units. Finally, they concluded that society has to change their general attitude towards citizens, government, state and public administration, which will be reflected through the acceptance of new values and placing more attention on building integrity and ethics.
Jon S.T. Quah
What is the secret of Singapore’s success in minimising corruption? Singapore’s effective anti-corruption recipe consists of a strong dose of political will and capacity which is reflected in the establishment of the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, an independent and adequately funded and staffed Type A anti-corruption agency, that enforces anti-corruption laws impartially, without fear or favour. This chapter analyses the ingredients of this recipe and identifies five lessons that other countries can learn from Singapore’s experience.
Willeke Slingerland and Gjalt de Graaf
The Netherlands has consistently been high on the Corruption Perceptions Index and, comparatively speaking, there is still significant attention paid to integrity. Yet, many Dutch citizens are critical of public administration and are cynical about politics. Although bribery appears to be uncommon in the Netherlands, there are growing concerns that the country is more corrupt than one would think at first glance. This chapter will provide an overview of the current state of corruption in the Netherlands. Two cases are discussed that illustrate that the Netherlands has its own concerns when it comes to corruption. The fact that in the major corruption cases individuals had organized themselves in networks in which various integrity violations occurred is something which is increasingly recognized. The network corruption or corruption in the polder requires a different way of approaching corruption.