Edited by Kenneth A. Reinert
Edited by Anna Triandafyllidou
Edited by Guy M. Robinson and Doris A. Carson
C. Michael Hall
Tourism plays an important role in biotic exchange. It has the potential to become one of the most salient vectors of bio-contaminants on Earth. Through the destinations visited, the activities undertaken, the types of transportation used and other variables, tourism can be a significant pathway for biological invasions. In particular, this chapter looks at the role of aviation, rural and ecotourism, remoteness of the destination in relation to urban areas and other established destinations, increased contact between animals and humans, environmental change (e.g. building roads), and human contact with disease vectors (e.g. flies and mosquitos). Common biohazard vectors and pathways include luggage, food, shoes and clothing, modes of transportation and the like. The chapter also discusses ways of managing biological invasions and other biosecurity concerns.
This chapter discusses a range of issues related to the interface between terrorism and tourism. The discussion examines the impact of terrorism from three perspectives; terrorism as a form of risk, the impact of terrorism on tourist activity and, strategies that the tourism system must adopt to counter the potential of terrorist activity on tourism demand. This approach is based on the view that it is not possible to understand or deal with the threats posed by terrorist activity on the tourism industry in isolation from the impact that terrorism may have on society as a whole. The chapter commences with a brief review of terrorism and problems with definition. While it is argued that the response to events such as the 9/11 attack on the USA have had a significant impact on tourism and on the cost of travel, terrorism as a phenomenon has not significantly altered the demand for travel on a global scale. A principle finding of the chapter is that it is necessary to adopt a systematic approach to dealing with the threat of terrorism commencing with how individual tourists responds to risk, followed by strategies adopted by firms to safeguard their clients, strategies that destinations should adopt to respond to risks including terrorism and the response of governments through policing, the justice system and the penal system.
Even for mainstream tourism, the relationship between touristic practices and war is complex. Just as present conflict can discourage travel to a destination, many destinations are founded on relics and narratives of past battles. “Real-time” war tourists are a niche group for which the presence or proximity of conflict is an enticement, rather than a deterrent. These tourists have various motivations, such as a desire to obtain first-hand knowledge of the conflict situation rather than relying on media narratives, experiencing the thrill of danger, understanding the stories of those impacted by violence or, most problematically, viewing conflict as a spectacle for their entertainment. Tour operators cater to all of these proclivities, offering a range of more or less explicitly war-themed products. Though war-torn countries are in need of the financial benefits that tourism brings, ethical considerations are raised for both tourists and operators, considering the implications of benefiting in tangible or intangible ways from the hardships of others. All of these real-time war tourism practices can be understood in terms of different relationships to risk – some seeking out risk for its own sake and others seeking to gain knowledge or experiences of the conflict situation while mitigating risk to themselves.
This chapter reviews recent and current thinking about the role of tourism in peace making. It highlights some of the factors and variables that affect more peaceful relations between countries, particularly the countries of tourists’ origins and their destinations. The chapter uses the conceptual framework of benevolent relations through interpersonal contact, sport tourism as a medium of peace-building, border heritage-based tourism as symbolic of a transformation from conflict to peace and tourism in peace parks. Each one of these actions and types of tourism has unique characteristics that create an increased potential for developing between relationships between countries and peoples.
Edited by Dallen J. Timothy
Dallen J. Timothy
This chapter provides an overview of the history and development of globalization, its meaning and its manifestations in everyday life. It also applies these concepts to tourism-specific contexts within the framework of meanings and processes; human mobility, geopolitics, security and conflict; population and environmental challenges; innovation and technology; and other issues and mobility trends in today’s tourism marketplace. The chapter also outlines the conceptual development of the book and the contributions of the various authors.
Larry Dwyer and Nevenka Čavlek
This chapter addresses some important aspects of economic globalisation and the role of multinational corporations in tourism. It then addresses several of the important effects of economic globalisation in the context of tourism.Three major groups of stakeholders are taken into consideration: the host destination, tourism operators and tourists. The effects of economic globalisation analysed in the context of host destination refer to economic growth, foreign direct investment, marketing and promotion effects, impacts of information and communication technologies and dependence on tourism. For tourism operations the most visible effects of globalisation are reflected in the rise of multinational companies, their power and influence on form and scale of tourism development, technology transfer, employment effects, product and quality effects as well as crowding out effects. Tourists as members of the growing 'leisure society' have benefited from increased social connectedness and creation of new transformative holiday opportunities.