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  • Series: NECTAR Series on Transportation and Communications Networks Research x
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Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

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Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

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Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

No abstract available

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Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni and Piet Rietveld

No abstract available

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Eran Ben-Elia and Erel Avineri

This chapter focuses on the behavioural effects of travel information provision, one of the main goals for ICT in transport. These effects are quite complex and difficult to model or predict and are intertwined with the cognitive and affective aspects of how humans resolve uncertainties through heuristics. Information effects depend on the type of information (experiential, descriptional, forgone, or prescriptive) and on the type of choice environment (non-competitive or competitive). From the individual’s viewpoint information is mostly beneficial in the short term, expediting learning of variable traffic conditions. Information provides a mental anchor and greater sense of self-control in ambiguous situations. Information generates feelings of regret, namely when information on forgone alternatives is given. Attitudes and affective stickiness further inhibit both acquisition of information and change of behaviour, for example to a different mode. From the viewpoint of network management, information can assist in contending with non-recurring incidents and delays by switching to less congested routes or other modes. Yet undesirable effects including excessive route switching associated with saturation on downstream links where information is supplied, remain relevant threats. Too much information leads overall traffic distributions to converge towards the inefficient conditions associated with a steady-state user equilibrium. The main drawback of current information provision strategies is failure in making substantial changes to the competitive nature of the transport system and its use. Future ICT could well provide novel opportunities to utilize information to optimize traffic flow and reshape travel behaviours through cooperation and social learning implemented with choice architecture.

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Cristina Pronello and Cristian Camusso

This research aimed at identifying the needs of public transport users when using a real-time traveller information system. The quali-quantitative approach (web-questionnaire and focus group on a sample of transport users and transport companies in Europe) revealed: (1) the attributes that such applications should have to attract more users to PT; (2) PT companies’ requirements and the barriers they envisage about Galileo-based applications on mobile devices. The results led to the design of ‘Smart-Way’, a smartphone application to aid navigation through public transport networks in real time. ICT for transport emerged as a big opportunity for physically disabled people as the real-time navigator can increase their ability to travel and their quality of life. The simplicity and the ergonomics of the application are crucial. However, the cost to sustain the application is a threat due to the low WTP declared by the sample and confirmed by the literature. Another threat is that some users do not want their location continuously tracked. He lack of standards and consistency with other European ITS applications as well as the distrust of transport operators to make their data available to competitors may hamper the implementation of Smart-Way in European transport companies.

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Bernard Gyergyay

This chapter evaluates the ‘Step2Get’ scheme where incentives were issued to encourage students at Ricards Lodge School in Wimbledon (London, United Kingdom), to walk to school instead of taking the bus. Walks were recorded through ICT swipe cards that were issued to student participants who were incentivized to walk to school regularly by the offer of concrete rewards. Analysis of data from the regional transport authority, Transport for London, shows that student participants’ demand for buses decreased, which reduced overcrowding at the bus stop and thus improved bus dwell time. A further analysis shows that ‘Step2Get’ participants who received incentives to walk increased significantly the modal split for walking and developed more positive attitudes about walking even after the incentives had stopped. The results suggest that a temporary implementation of an ICT behaviour change scheme such as ‘Step2Get’ can have a lasting impact on travel habits. The chapter thus ends with the recommendation that this or related types of ICT schemes should be considered in the transport policy portfolio of travel demand management schemes. Schemes such as ‘Step2Get’ form a tool where the right ICT technology and incentives are combined to change travel behaviour towards more sustainable modes of transport or less congested modes of transport.

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P. Christopher Zegras, Kuan Butts, Arturo Cadena and Daniel Palencia

This chapter demonstrates the potential for smartphone-based technology to improve our abilities to diagnose urban mobility problems in a megacity context, focusing on the personal security perceptions of public transport users in Mexico City. We use a purpose-developed Android application to examine whether private sector-developed intermodal stations (CETRAMs) influence minibus (colectivo) users’ self-reported perceptions of personal security. Not only do we show the viability of this specific ICT approach as an urban transport diagnostic tool, we also provide some initial evidence about the role of CETRAMs. The analysis reveals no direct relationship between the CETRAMs and colectivo users’ sense of security; passengers on vehicles in proximity to CETRAMs report higher personal security levels, but those positive context relationships are similar to those associated with a range of other contexts where the on-board surveys were conducted. Younger passengers report higher levels of personal security, while the well-educated do not. Unsurprisingly, female respondents report lower levels of security, and female-specific effects are also detected for trip, context and security perception-related variables. While illuminating the promise of the smartphone as a tool that can readily bring high spatial and temporal resolution to urban system diagnostics, the results should still be viewed as preliminary.

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Qiyang Xu and Elizabeth Dodds

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays an increasingly crucial role in various sectors, particularly transport due to increased mobility patterns globally. This chapter explores how open geospatial data and crowdsourcing can support ICT-enabled innovations for transport in a global context with emphasis on developing countries. Section 2 provides an overview of open data and crowdsourcing applications, which have helped to capture, document and share transport information in innovative and efficient ways. Section 3 discusses challenges related to the application of ICTs to transport initiatives and the chapter ends with recommendations for future work in section 4.

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Wei Lu and Lee D. Han

Vehicular communication networks based on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) have drawn increasing research interest in recent years. Through modeling and simulation of two traffic mobility scenarios (vehicle platooning and dynamic traffic), we discuss the performance of vehicular communication between vehicles. Two measures are selected: throughput and end-to-end delay, to answer two important questions about how fast the information can be delivered and how far the communication can reach. These simulation results provide critical recommendations on vehicular communication equipment selection and implementation in a real world situation. Meanwhile, we study the impacts of using ICT in the field of fuel consumption. Vehicle platooning decreases fuel consumption. Faster average moving speed decreases travel time and increases fuel efficiency. This fuel consumption study can be extended to a more complicated environmental analysis for sustainable transport systems. The study ends with three recommendations for vehicular network researchers and three key challenges and opportunities for using vehicular communication technology to improve transport efficiency.