Cathy Macharis and Gino Baudry
Decision-making in the context of sustainable mobility and the transport sector often implies addressing complex problems featuring multiple interests and perspectives, conflicting objectives and different types of data and information. Typically, several levels of public policy are involved (local, province, regional, state and European levels) and several stakeholders (such as freight forwarders, investors, citizens, industry and so on) which have a vested interest in the ultimate decision, whether they encompass environmental, social, economic, technical or legal issues. If the decision-making process fails to take these interests into account, projects are often not implemented or lead to unacceptable delays or they can even be ignored by policy makers or attacked by the stakeholders. The chapter presents the Multi Actor and Multi Criteria Analysis (MAMCA) methodology, which has been developed to address such issues by explicitly considering and involving the stakeholders in the decision-process from the very beginning to the very end of the procedure.
Cathy Macharis, Klaas De Brucker and Koen Van Raemdonck
The aim of this chapter is to develop a decision tree for the ex ante evaluation of transport projects to guide decision makers in choosing the most appropriate evaluation method(s). First, the authors identify the differences between the main objectives and characteristics of a number of evaluation methods, Operational Research (OR) as well as non-OR methods, such as Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA), Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) and other methods. We provide the (OR) Community with insights on how MCA relates to non-OR methodologies, and attempt to structure the complexity of the ex ante evaluation process of transport (and other) projects.
Gino Baudry, Koen Van Raemdonck and Cathy Macharis
Participatory decision making requires one to collect and compute a wide range of data either based on the literature or on social actors’ statements. The Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis (MAMCA) software has been developed to facilitate the collection and computation processes, thanks to its user-friendly interface. The MAMCA software has been developed over the years to enhance participation in the decision-making process. The objective of this is to present the software and its commands to help future users in deploying the MAMCA framework.
Geert te Boveldt, Koen Van Raemdonck and Cathy Macharis
Many contemporary policy issues require cooperation between institutions. Yet, cooperation is often hampered by problems including political transaction costs and the non-internalisation of externalities. The chapter presents a novel evaluation and group decision-making method, Competence-based Multi Criteria Analysis (COMCA), which is a framework for applying Multi Criteria Decision Aid in a multi-actor, multi-level context. For each actor the desirability of different decision alternatives is derived from the actor’s individual criteria and priorities. Individual actor results are aggregated with those of other actors that have the same role in the decision’s implementation, yielding insight into the desirability of the decision alternatives for each of the groups whose support is needed for the decision’s implementation. The chapter shows how COMCA can be applied to overcome typical hurdles in inter-institutional cooperation by revealing policy options that are feasible considering the actors’ competence to make or break a decision, from local or global perspectives.
Gino Baudry, Thomas Vallée and Cathy Macharis
The decision-making context can be characterized by different types of uncertainty that may affect the decision-making process and its outcomes. Such uncertain contexts may lead decision-makers to take unsuited or at least non-optimal decisions. The range-based Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis (MAMCA) framework aims to deal with this issue by implementing an exploratory scenario approach into the traditional MAMCA, using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The chapter presents the range-based MAMCA methodology and the main rationales to deploy it.
Marco Dean and Robin Hickman
Considering how major transport projects should be assessed continues to generate debate amongst academics, infrastructure specialists, investors and governments alike. This chapter compares traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analyis (MAMCA) methodologies. It considers the South Fylde Line, linking Blackpool, a large town and seaside resort in North West England, the Fylde Coast and the city of Preston. The authors critically discuss the appraisal of three potential alternative improvements of the rail line, proposed with the view to supporting regeneration in the area. The appraisal includes both a CBA and a MAMCA exercise. Based on this analysis, the authors contends that, particularly in areas characterized by severe social deprivation problems, a MAMCA approach to appraisal may be preferable to analyst-led, economic-centric tools such as CBA. However, participatory MCA methodologies should not be regarded as a panacea for better decisions and their application is also subject to several issues which require careful consideration.
Anastasia Roukouni, Cathy Macharis and Socrates Basbas
A family of innovative financial mechanisms and tools for urban public transport, based on the value increment caused by enhanced accessibility, is lately gaining much popularity as a solution to the challenges posed by shrinkage of public financial resources, known as Value Capture Finance (VCF). The effectiveness of applied transport financing policies depends significantly on the level of agreement among stakeholders, making collaboration a prerequisite for success. The research presented in this chapter assesses alternative financing options for urban public transportation that are based on the VCF concept, using the Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis (MAMCA). The proposed methodological framework is applied to a real-world case study of the metro system under construction in Thessaloniki, Greece. The chapter introduces the MAMCA as an ex ante evaluation method for different VCF mechanisms for urban transportation infrastructure. The MAMCA emerges as a robust methodology for this assessment, as it is shown to be capable of dealing with the complexity of VCF and its multidisciplinary nature.
Tom van Lier, Dries Meers, Heleen Buldeo Rai and Cathy Macharis
In this chapter, the authors use the Multi Actor Multi Criteria analysis (MAMCA) to test the interest for innovative solutions impacting city logistics in the Belgian city of Mechelen. A list of diverse measures is proposed by an expert panel to a selection of relevant stakeholder groups. The proposed evaluation criteria were weighted by the stakeholders at a workshop and the stakeholders were asked to evaluate the different possible measures. Preferences strongly differ among stakeholder groups, but the most striking outcome of the workshop was the general attitude of retailers towards the proposed changes. For this stakeholder group, the authors discuss how the outcome of the MAMCA differs or aligns with the impacts in similar cases. Finally, they provide an ex ante analysis of the use of the MAMCA results by the local authorities in the city of Mechelen in their decision-making.