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Global Infrastructure Networks

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

Infrastructure represents the core underpinning architecture of the global economic system. Adopting an approach informed by realism, this insightful book looks at the forces for the integration and fragmentation of the global infrastructure system. The authors undertake a thorough examination of the main internationalised infrastructure sectors: energy, transport and information. They argue that the global infrastructure system is a network of national systems and that state strategies exert powerful forces upon the form and function of this system.
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Index

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

Aaltola, M. 45
Abbott, J. 35
abstract space 14
access technologies 56, 110, 113, 116, 11921, 214
access to power (server farm location factor) 119
accidents (cascade effect) 41
ACI–NA (Airports Council International–North America) 8990
adaptation
adaptive tensions 24, 26, 31, 32, 35, 367, 42, 20910
global energy system 159, 165, 180, 182, 185, 196, 200
global transport infrastructure system 56, 57, 59, 67, 69, 79, 8992, 98, 99
Agnew, J. 89, 47
Airbus A380 912
air hubs/routes 624
airline alliances 70, 71, 74, 75
air navigation infrastructure (aviation infrastructure) 62
airport connectivity 71, 745
airside services (aviation infrastructure) 62
airspace 43, 44, 46
Alexander III, Tsar 21
Almaty Programme 93, 96
‘Angola mode’ of investment 96, 146
Anthropocene 13
Arab Spring 141, 142, 199200
ATS (air traffic services) 77
Auster, R. D. 12
aviation infrastructure 55, 567, 614, 69, 7071, 72, 74, 767, 79, 812, 834, 8990, 912
Bali Agreement (2013) 69
balkanisation 83, 92, 135, 137, 139
Barrett, M. 175, 176
Barysch, K. 48
Basic Telecommunications Agreement (WTO) 1245
Biermann, F. 200
Blanchard, M. 20
border control 80, 812
bottlenecks 23, 41, 44, 47, 65, 80, 846, 87, 90, 125, 140, 155, 17980
Bowker, G. C. 34, 37
BP (British Petroleum) 158, 161, 163, 167, 171, 199
Braithwaite, J. 111
Brenner, N. 7, 8, 910, 209
Cable Convention (1884) 114
Cairncross, F. 122
Cameron, A. 37
capacity crunch (cascade effect) 41
‘Cape to Cairo’ railway 22
Carter Doctrine 196
cascade effects 25, 37, 3942, 84, 88, 196
Castells, M. 7, 210
Cavanagh, A. 122
Chicago Convention (1944) 64, 767
choke points 15, 45, 478, 846, 88, 90, 1936
climate change 1967
cloud computing 111, 118, 119, 127, 132
coal infrastructure 155, 156, 157, 1715, 185
Cohen, G. 177, 187
Collier, P. 92
commons see global commons
communications infrastructure 2, 5
community infrastructure (multi-scalar approach) 8, 9
complexity cascades 41
complexity catastrophe 11
consumer protection (border control) 80
containerisation/container traffic 579, 60, 66, 74, 75, 789, 823, 85, 88, 96, 98, 214
content and censorship (fragmentation source) 138
control 10, 1213
and global commons 445
and global energy system 1767, 184, 19091, 1956
and global information infrastructure system 110, 112, 114, 119, 123, 1256, 13031, 13241, 21819
and globality 39, 49
and global transport infrastructure system 61, 62, 64, 66, 70, 767, 8082, 83, 867, 95, 99
infrastructural mandate through the ages 16, 1718, 1922
cooling and climate (server farm location factor) 119
Copyright Treaty (2002) 132
critical infrastructures 33, 39, 209, 21920
and global energy system 189, 190
and global information infrastructure system 114, 139, 141
and global transport infrastructure system 57, 70, 83
and infrastructural mandate 15, 245
CSI (Container Security Initiative) 76, 823
cyber interdependency 25
‘cyber-libertarianism’ 108
cyber power 135, 139, 1412
cyberspace
control of 110, 131, 13441, 1426
and global commons 43, 44, 46, 108, 109, 112, 128, 134, 137, 140
and infrastructural mandate 15
see also GII system; internet
data collection 143
data localization 138
data security (server farm location factor) 119
Department of Homeland Security (US) 82
dependent territoriality 32, 41, 469
dependent/transit systems 32
depreciation (cascade effect) 41
digital divide 108, 115, 116, 117, 124, 1456
discretionary state fragmentation 814
disrupting community 45
Dixon, A. D. 40
Downs, E. S. 186
Drahos, P. 111
Drake, W. J. 13031, 146
Drezner, D. W. 129
Dubash, N. K. 200
Dutch East India Company 18
‘dynamic governance’ model 1367
E-commerce and trade (fragmentation source) 138
economic development paradigm (GII system) 1234
economic infrastructure 2, 146, 213
ECT (Energy Charter Treaty) 183, 185
Eichensehr, K. E. 136
Emmerson, C. 194, 195
energy, global system of see GES
energy poverty 181, 1913, 200
environment and health (border control) 80
erosion of internationalism (fragmentation source) 139
failed states 217
failing nodes 11
failing soft infrastructure 11
Faye, M. L. 95
FDI (foreign direct investment) 48, 126, 183, 190, 198, 190
FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) 170
Florini, A. 200
Flyvberg, B. 42
Fourie, J. 2
fragmentation 42, 48, 4950, 21620
and global energy system 188202, 216
and global information infrastructure system 109, 111, 12946, 218, 21920
and global transport infrastructure system 66, 7999
framework of state-based GIS 312
Frankopan, P. 17
Frémont, A. 58
‘future proof’ infrastructure 59, 116, 118
Gallup, J. L. 93, 95
gas infrastructure 155, 156, 157, 16571, 177, 180, 1878, 1923, 194, 1967
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 70, 71
Gazprom 188
GES (global energy system) 155, 2012
choke points 1936
and China 158, 159, 160, 163, 1715, 179, 18081, 1867, 188, 195, 201
and climate change 1967
coal infrastructure 155, 156, 157, 1715, 185
cyclical factors 197
diversification strategies 1858
energy poverty 181, 1913, 200
energy self-sufficiency 158, 159, 179, 1889, 195
and fragmentation 188202, 216
fragmented governance structures 200201
gas infrastructure 155, 156, 157, 16571, 177, 180, 1878, 1923, 194, 196
geopolitical issues 197200, 202
growth/development 155, 157, 15860, 1612, 166, 173, 176, 178, 18081, 1867, 19093, 199200
and hegemonic power 1789, 186, 1979
imports/exports 1579, 162, 163, 1667, 17071, 1724, 1858, 190
and integration 17788, 201, 214
international governance 1814
international infrastructure 17981
interregional oil trade movements 1623
liberalisation of energy markets 1845
maritime transportation 1623, 166, 1725, 179, 180, 193, 1946
national energy strategies 18891
oil infrastructure 155, 1568, 159, 16065, 177, 1789, 1812, 1834, 1857, 1923, 194, 197, 199201
pipeline systems 162, 1634, 16670, 18081, 183, 185, 1868, 193, 195, 1967, 1989
renewable energy 158, 160, 179, 183, 189, 196
and security 155, 156, 160, 162, 170, 1757, 17983, 184, 18590, 191, 193, 197, 1989, 200, 201
and state power 155, 157, 1757, 1789, 180, 181, 183, 18690, 195, 1979
supply–demand mismatch 159, 16062, 177
geographic interdependency 25
geo-localization/geo-blocking 131
Ghemawat, P. 211
GII (global information infrastructure) system 10812
control of cyberspace 110, 131, 13441, 1426, 218, 219
current state of 11222
cyberspace as ‘global commons’ 108, 112, 128, 134, 140
digital divide 108, 115, 116, 117, 124, 1456
economic development paradigm 1234
and fragmentation 109, 111, 12946, 218, 21920
global communications MNCs 1256
and globality 109, 11213, 119, 1223, 127, 130, 1356, 140, 143
global virtual value chain 127
growth/development 108, 11012, 115, 1212, 1235, 131, 1334, 1423, 1456
and hegemonic power 124, 127, 136, 137, 139, 141
‘ideal’ characteristics 109
industry-led regulation and innovation 129
and infrastructural mandate 123, 130, 133, 1356, 138, 141
initial internationalist consensus 1223
and integration 1089, 112, 1229, 134, 139, 146, 214
international data flows 11213
and internet 108, 11013, 11521, 1223, 1289, 130, 131, 13341, 1434, 146
key indicators 11618
meta/macro-level consensus 1245
mobile telecommunications technology 11921
national information infrastructures see NII
non-state drivers of fragmentation 13031
penetration rates 116, 117, 12021
piracy 1313
privacy 1425
satellite systems 11415
security 108, 119, 123, 1334, 13542, 143, 144, 146, 21920
‘splintering’ of 1339, 146
and territoriality 108, 11314, 123, 130, 134, 135, 146
and transnational governance 1278, 132
and transnational information infrastructure 11415
GIIC (Global Information Infrastructure Commission) 124
Girard, L. 19
global commons 15, 34, 36, 39, 436, 208
and cyberspace 43, 44, 46, 108, 109, 112, 128, 134, 137, 140
and fragmentation 216, 220
and GIS framework 31, 32
and global energy system 178
and global transport infrastructure system 64, 84
global communications MNCs 1256
global infrastructure (multi-scalar approach) 8, 9
global trade routes (GTI system) 58, 60, 65
global value chains 668, 88, 93
global virtual value chain 127
globality
and commons 36, 39, 436
and dependent territoriality 469
and global information infrastructure system 109, 11213, 119, 1223, 127, 130, 1356, 140, 143
and global transport infrastructure system 56, 667, 69, 757, 79, 81, 99
and growth/development 34, 39, 45, 47
and hegemonic power 446, 48, 49
and infrastructural mandate 14, 36, 3840, 423
and National Infrastructure System 31, 32, 3543, 49
and nature of global infrastructure system 20911
and state-based global infrastructure system 21112, 213
and state primacy 31, 34
territoriality–infrastructure nexus 78
Glykou, I. 16
Goldin, I. 42
Goldsmith, J. 134
Goldthau, A. 200
GPNs (global production networks) 678
Graham, S. 5, 11, 135
Grainger, A. 69, 80
growth/development 5, 10, 12, 1516, 1922, 213, 217, 220
global energy system 155, 157, 15860, 1612, 166, 173, 176, 178, 18081, 1867, 19093, 199200
global information infrastructure system 108, 11012, 115, 1212, 1235, 131, 1334, 1423, 1456
and globality 34, 39, 45, 47
global transport infrastructure system 57, 64, 667, 69, 72, 89, 94, 99
infrastructural mandate through the ages 16, 20, 23
GSC (Global Standards Collaboration) 128
GTI (global transport infrastructure) system 55, 99
and adaptation 56, 57, 59, 67, 69, 79, 8992, 98, 99
aviation infrastructure 55, 567, 614, 69, 7071, 72, 74, 767, 79, 812, 834, 8990, 912
bottlenecks and choke points 846
and control 61, 62, 64, 66, 70, 767, 8082, 83, 867, 95, 99
discretionary state fragmentation 814
and fragmentation 66, 7999
global governance of flows 757
global value chains 668, 88, 93
growth/development 57, 64, 667, 69, 72, 89, 94, 99
infrastructure under-investment 8890
and integration 57, 62, 66, 6679, 80, 81, 82, 92, 94, 99, 214
international system outliers 92
landlocked states 56, 57, 60, 65, 926
and liberalisation of transportation systems 6972
maritime/port infrastructure 55, 56, 5761, 69, 714, 756, 789, 823, 848, 9091, 969
and national infrastructure system 678, 70, 72, 75, 79, 80, 81, 823, 889, 92, 99
nature of 5666
piracy 868
security 57, 62, 66, 68, 6970, 713, 757, 8083, 878, 99
Small Island Developing States 969
and soft infrastructure 65, 689, 77, 79, 8081, 89
technological change 789
terrestrial transport 56, 646, 934, 956
and trade facilitation 57, 65, 689, 80, 81, 93, 96
transnational transport enterprises 725
Hafele, W. 156
Hague Convention (1970) 77
Hanseatic League 18
hard infrastructure 23, 5, 50, 65, 68, 79, 121
hard power 178, 179, 195
Hardin, G. 43
Hartshorne, R. 14
Harvey, D. 211
hegemonic power 34
and global energy system 1789, 186, 1979
and global information infrastructure system 124, 127, 136, 137, 139, 141
and globality 446, 48, 49
and global transport infrastructure system 76, 77, 82, 84, 86
Held, D. 38
Henderson, W. O. 2021
Heubaum, H. 200
Hirst, G. 211
Hitler, Adolf 22
hub-and-spoke systems 589, 7071, 74, 79
Hurricane Katrina 196
hyper-globalism 38, 67, 1223
IATA (International Air Transport Association) 57
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 128, 129, 138, 139
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) 61, 70, 77, 91
IEA (International Energy Agency) 159, 160, 1813, 193, 196, 200201
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 128
IGU (International Gas Union) 165
IMO (International Maritime Organization) 71, 75, 195
impact stage (national information infrastructures) 112
information
global information infrastructure system see GII system
national information infrastructures see NII
‘information poor’ regions 146
infrastructural mandate 1, 1011, 256
and adaptive tensions 31, 32
and critical infrastructure 15, 245
and dependent territoriality 468
dimensions of 1216
and fragmentation 220
and global energy system 176, 177, 191, 201
and global information infrastructure system 123, 130, 133, 1356, 138, 141
and globality 36, 3840, 423
and global transport infrastructure system 69, 756, 79, 81, 89, 94
and integration 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 213, 214, 216
and nature of global infrastructure system 209, 210, 211
and state primacy 31, 335
and state-based global infrastructure system 211
territoriality–infrastructure nexus 5, 8
through the ages 1624
infrastructure 12, 31, 208, 220
embeddedness in socio-economic systems 2089, 212
energy infrastructure see GES
and GIS framework 312
global information infrastructure system see GII system
global transport infrastructure system see GTI system
hard see hard infrastructure
infrastructural mandate see infrastructural mandate
and modernity 4, 6
multi-scalar infrastructure 8, 9
National Infrastructure System see NIS
nature of global infrastructure system 20811
nexus with territoriality 110, 246
secondary infrastructure 56, 65, 110, 11921, 125
soft see soft infrastructure
spatial complexity of 11, 245, 367, 38, 132, 209, 21112
state-based GIS 21113
and state primacy 31, 335, 4950
infrastructure under-investment 8890
‘infrastructured state’ 8, 10
initial internationalist consensus (GII system) 1223
institutional capability 3, 5
institutional design 3, 5
institutional objectives 3, 5
integration 10, 12, 1314, 21316
cooperation and collaboration 21415
and global energy system 17788, 201, 214
global information infrastructure system 1089, 112, 1229, 134, 139, 146, 214
and globality 39, 49
global transport infrastructure system 57, 62, 66, 6679, 80, 81, 82, 92, 94, 99, 214
and infrastructural mandate 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 213, 214, 216
intelligent policy enforcement 1389
intensity (national information infrastructures) 112
intermediate/secondary hubs 60, 70, 71
International Air Services Transit Agreement 84
international data flows 11213
international system outliers 92
internet 108, 11013, 11521, 1223, 1289, 130, 131, 13341, 1434, 146
see also cyberspace; GII system
Internet Governance Forum 129, 138
IPE (International Political Economy) approach 6, 32, 33, 42, 208, 210, 215
IPR (intellectual property rights) 111, 129, 1323
ISPs (internet service providers) 113, 133, 1356
ISPS (International Ship and Port Security) Code 756, 88
ITU (International Telecommunications Union) 112, 115, 125, 1289, 136, 137
Jervis, R. 214
Kandiyoti, R. 179, 198
Keating, M. 7
Keohane, R. O. 214
‘kill switches’ 136, 139, 140, 146
Klare, M. 178
Kruyt, B. 1756
Kuehl, D. T. 1412
landlocked states 47, 56, 57, 60, 65, 926, 114, 116, 193, 217
landside services (aviation infrastructure) 62
LDCs (less developed countries) 93
Lefebvre, H. 14
Lessig, L. 111
liberalisation of transportation systems 6972
Liner Shipping Connectivity Index 73
List, Friedrich 20
Little, R. G. 40
LNG (liquefied natural gas) 1667, 17071, 1878, 194, 195, 197
logical interdependency 25
logistical flows (cascade effect) 41
Mabro, R. 190
Malacca Strait 23, 59, 60, 856, 88, 9091, 179, 1945
Mann, M. 12
Mariathasan, M. 42
maritime infrastructure
and dependent territoriality 48
and energy transportation 1623, 166, 1725, 179, 180, 193, 1946
and global commons 43, 44, 46
and global transport infrastructure system 55, 56, 5761, 69, 714, 756, 789, 823, 848, 9091, 969
infrastructural mandate through the ages 1718
Marks, S. G. 21
Marvin, S. 5, 11, 135
McGrew, A. 38
McKinsey Global Institute 11213
‘mega-ships’ 59, 78, 86, 89, 9091, 214
meta/macro-level consensus (GII system) 1245
Millennium Development Goals (UN) 191
MNCs (multinational corporations) 67, 68, 99, 1256, 184, 215, 216
MNICs (multinational infrastructure companies) 72
mobile telecommunications technology 11921
‘modern infrastructural ideal’ 4, 6, 11, 14
modernity 4, 6, 37, 211
Monk, A. H. 40
Montreal Convention (1970) 77
Mueller, M. L. 108, 128, 135
multi-scalar infrastructure 8, 910, 23, 39, 210
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) 65
Napoleon III 19, 20
national energy strategies 18891
national infrastructure (multi-scalar approach) 8, 9
‘national interest’ 345
National Security Agency (US) 137, 144
neo-liberalism 14, 42, 67, 89, 122, 191, 212, 214
neo-realism 34, 211, 213, 214
Nero, G. 62
NES (national energy system) 155, 157, 172, 1767, 178, 181, 184, 189, 200, 201
network neutrality 13031, 136
Network Readiness Index 121
NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 46, 189
NII (national information infrastructures) 1089, 110, 215
current state of GII system 112, 113, 114, 11522
and fragmentation 130, 134, 1356, 137, 138, 13941, 1456
and integration 1235
Nincic, D. J. 85
NIS (National Infrastructure System)
and dependent territoriality 467
and fragmentation 21618, 220
and global flows 208, 210, 211, 216
and global transport infrastructure system 678, 70, 72, 75, 79, 80, 81, 823, 889, 92, 99
and globality 31, 32, 3543, 49
and infrastructural mandate 10, 11, 1216, 246
and integration 213, 215, 216
and nature of global infrastructure system 20911
polycentric NIS 13, 24, 33, 42, 68, 89, 209, 210, 215
primacy of state in 31, 335, 4950
spatial complexity of 245, 367, 38
and state-based global infrastructure system 21113
territoriality–infrastructure nexus 1, 3, 45, 68
non-territorial domains/infrastructures 9, 312, 34, 40, 434, 50, 56, 64, 108, 213, 214
NTI (National Transportation Infrastructure) 66, 67, 68, 96, 99
Nye, J. S. 214
OBOR (One Belt, One Road) project 234
obsolescence 10
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 33, 42
and global energy system 1578, 15960, 165, 171, 201
and global information infrastructure system 115, 116, 120, 1212
and global transport infrastructure system 67, 77, 82, 83, 89
oil crisis (1973–4) 157, 172, 182
oil infrastructure 155, 1568, 159, 16065, 177, 1789, 1812, 1834, 1857, 1923, 194, 197, 199201
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) 159, 162, 182, 1834, 185, 197, 201
open skies agreements 70
outer space 44
Painter, J. 7
Palan, R. 35, 37
Panama Canal 59, 60, 78, 84, 85, 90, 194
‘peak oil’ thesis 1789
peering and standardisation 130
penetration rates 116, 117, 12021
Perrow, C. 39
pipeline systems 489, 162, 1634, 16670, 18081, 183, 185, 1868, 193, 195, 1967, 1989
piracy (maritime) 868, 194, 1956
piracy (online) 1313
Pitelis, C. N. 16
political disputes (cascade effect) 41
polycentric NIS 13, 24, 33, 42, 68, 89, 209, 210, 215
port infrastructure 5761, 69, 714, 756, 789, 823, 845, 9091, 1623, 172, 1745
power relations 7, 12, 37, 41, 21112
PPP (purchasing power parity) 159
principal–agent problem 41
privacy (online) 1425
‘protective walls’ 31
proximity to risk (server farm location factor) 119
railway infrastructure 1922, 64, 934, 956
Ratner, M. 187
Rayport, J. F. 127
readiness (national information infrastructures) 112
regional infrastructure (multi-scalar approach) 8, 9
Reidenberg, J. R. 122
renewable energy 158, 160, 179, 183, 189, 196
‘rentier state’ model 190
resource nationalism 178, 19091
revenue collection (border control) 80
Rhodes, Cecil 22
Rinaldi, S. M. 25
risk in global systems (cascade effect) 41
road infrastructure 17, 19, 22, 234, 645, 93, 956
Robertson, R. 32
rogue agents (cascade effect) 41
rogue states 45, 21718
Roman Empire 1718, 19
Rowland, J. 142
Ruhleder, K. 6
Safe Harbour Agreement (EU–US) 144
safety and security (border control) 80
Sagar, A. D. 192
Sassen, S. 7, 38, 122
Sassin, W. 156
satellite systems 11415
‘Scramble for Africa’ 22
SEACOM network 114
secondary infrastructure 56, 65, 110, 11921, 125
Secure Freight Initiative (US) 68, 83
security 10, 12, 1415
and global commons 445
and global energy system 155, 156, 160, 162, 170, 1757, 17983, 184, 18590, 191, 193, 1979, 200, 201
and global information infrastructure system 108, 119, 123, 1334, 13542, 143, 144, 146, 21920
and globality 39, 49
and global transport infrastructure system 57, 62, 66, 68, 6970, 713, 757, 8083, 878, 99
infrastructural mandate through the ages 16, 17, 19, 23
security and safety services (aviation infrastructure) 62
security community 45
‘semi-globalisation’ 211
senescence 10
server farms 40, 11819, 140
‘seven sisters’ 157
Shand, J. D. 22
SIDS (Small Island Developing States) 47, 969, 217
Silk Roads 1718, 23, 65
Silver, M. 12
social infrastructure 2, 3, 5
socio-technical infrastructure 23, 5
soft infrastructure 2, 3, 5
and fragmentation 217, 21819
and GIS framework 32
and global energy system 177, 1823, 192, 198, 200
and globality 34, 39, 41, 50
and global information infrastructure system 121, 124, 137
and global transport infrastructure system 65, 689, 77, 79, 8081, 89
and infrastructural mandate 10, 11, 18, 25
and integration 213
and state primacy 34
soft power 178, 179, 195
Sovacool, B. K. 191, 200
spatial complexity 11, 245, 367, 38, 132, 209, 21112
Speer, Albert 22
‘splintering’ 1339, 146
Star, S. L. 34, 6, 37
state infrastructuring 45, 11, 31, 335, 423, 4950, 57, 68, 123, 209, 211, 21516
state primacy 31, 335, 4950
state sovereignty 9, 10, 31, 40, 77, 856, 111, 122, 134, 208, 209
Stevens, P. 194, 195, 198
Stirling, A. 176
stockpiling system (IEA) 182
Strait of Hormuz 85, 86, 179, 1945
‘strategic infrastructures’ 89
Stuxnet virus 140
Suez Canal 22, 59, 60, 78, 84, 856, 90, 194
Sviokla, J. J. 127
systemic risks 42, 43, 59
Szostak, Rick 19
Taylor, P. J. 38
technological change 16, 24, 36, 789, 110, 126, 133
TEN (Trans-European Network) Initiative 23, 65
terrestrial transport (global transport infrastructure system) 56, 646, 934, 956
‘territorial trap’ 210
territoriality 1, 212, 216
dependent territoriality 32, 41, 469
and global energy system 155, 167, 175, 189
and global information infrastructure system 108, 11314, 123, 130, 134, 135, 146
and global transport infrastructure system 56, 62, 66, 67, 76, 83, 88, 95
and infrastructural mandate 1016
and nature of global infrastructure system 208, 20911
nexus with infrastructure 110, 246
non-territorial domains/infrastructures 9, 312, 34, 40, 434, 50, 56, 64, 108, 213, 214
and state primacy 31, 34, 4950
terrorism 39, 76, 77, 812, 83, 878, 136, 182, 1945, 219
‘thick’ globality 36, 38, 81
‘thin’ globality 36
third party export infrastructure 41
Thompson, P. 211
TNIC (trans-national infrastructure companies) 113, 126
Todt, Fritz 22
Tokyo Convention (1963) 767
tourism 61, 97, 98
TPES (total primary energy supply) 160, 171, 187
trade facilitation 57, 65, 689, 80, 81, 93, 96
trade policy administration (border control) 80
‘tragedy of the commons’ 43
transit points 56, 59, 178, 216
transit rights 41, 64, 65, 83, 956
transnational cascades 37, 3942, 43
transnational governance (in GII system) 1278, 132
transnational information infrastructure 11415
transnational infrastructure 3, 8, 9, 645, 93, 109, 11314
transnational transport enterprises 725
transport infrastructure
global transport infrastructure system see GTI system
infrastructural mandate through the ages 1720
Trans-Siberian Railroad 212
Treaty on Cyber Crime (Council of Europe) 134
Treaty on Performances and Phonograms (2002) 132
TRIPS (Trade-Related Intellectual Property Agreement) 132
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) 856, 114, 183, 215
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) 72, 73, 94, 95, 97, 110, 124
urban infrastructure (multi-scalar approach) 8, 9
variable soft infrastructure 8081
walled gardens 131, 135, 141
Ward, H. 191
WEC (World Energy Council) 196
WEF (World Economic Forum) 42, 67, 68, 8081, 89, 121, 124, 145, 191
Weiss, L. 38
welfarism 4, 6, 14, 16, 31, 111, 212
WikiLeaks 142
Wilson, E. J. 146
Winzer, C. 175
WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 129, 1323
Witte, Sergei 21
Wolmar, C. 19, 21
World Bank 62, 65, 81, 93, 124, 125
World Conference on International Communications (2012) 136
World Customs Organisation 76
World Summit on the Information Society (2002–2005) 128, 138
WTO (World Trade Organization) 69, 70, 80, 81, 1245, 129, 1845
Wu, T. 134
Yergin, D. 177, 178
Zollverein 2021