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AI Artificial intelligence
ARIPO African Regional Intellectual Property Organization
B Billion
BIO-M Study of biomaterial technology
BMBF Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
BRIC Brazil, Russia, India and China
C-field Chemical engineering field
CAFC United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model
CBI Confederation of British Industry
CEO Chief executive officer
CIPO Chief intellectual property officer
CIS Community Innovation Survey
CP Community patent
CTO Chief technology officer
DPMA Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt
E-area Electricity area
E-field Electrical engineering field
EC European Commission
EMU Economic and Monetary Union
EP European patent
EPC European Patent Convention
EPLA European Patent Litigation Agreement
EPO European Patent Office
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EU European Union
EUR Euro
FDI Foreign direct investment
FF First filing
FIB Foreign is better
FRAND Fair, Reasonable, and Non-Discriminatory terms
FTC Federal Trade Commission
FTO Freedom to operate
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAZ Study of high-growth “gazelle” companies
GDP Gross domestic product
GDPR General Data Protection Regulation
GERD Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
GGVV Study of the Gnosjö region (Gislaved, Gnosjö, Vaggeryd and Värnamo)
GII Global Innovation Index
GNI Gross national income
GNP Gross national product
GSM Global System for Mobile communications (originally Groupe Spécial
GPTs General purpose technologies
GRP Gross regional product
HDI Human Development Index
HIT Study of high-tech companies
I&E Innovation and entrepreneurship
IAS International Accounting Standards
IC Intellectual capital
ICLs Innovation collaborations
ICT Information and communication technology
IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards
IIP Innovation and intellectual property
INT Study of international conditions
IoT Internet of things
IP Intellectual property
IP5 The five large IP Offices, known as “The Big Five” (EPO, JPO, KIPO,
IPC International Patent Classification
IPE Study of the supply and demand of patent and IP education in Sweden
IPM IP management
IPO Initial public offering
IPR Intellectual property right
IPRED Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive
IT Information technology
IT-SME Questionnaire study of small and medium-sized companies in the IT sector
ITU International Telecommunication Union
IVA Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
JPO Japan Patent and Trademark Office
KIPO Korean Intellectual Property Office
LF Large firms
LTE Long Term Evolution
M Million
M&A Mergers and acquisitions
M-field Mechanical engineering field
MADs M&As and divestments
MELT Managerial, economic, legal and technological
MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)
MNC Multinational corporation
MoU Memorandum of understanding
MTB Market to book
NAE National Academy of Engineering
NAS National Academy of Science
NGOs Non-governmental organizations
NIC National Intellectual Capital
NIR Journal and association for Nordic immaterial property rights protection
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephony System
NP National patent
NPE Non-producing or non-practicing entity
NPF Non-profit foundation
NPOs National patent offices
NRC National Research Council
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OTC Over-the-counter
PAE Patent Assertion Entity
PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty
PEs Producing entities
PEST Study of exploitation of important patents
PEX Patent and growth investigation
PEX4-L Questionnaire study of large companies
PEX4-PB Questionnaire study of patent consultancy agencies
PEX4-PRVStudy of the Swedish PTO patent statistics
PEX4-S Questionnaire study of small and medium-sized companies
PF Patenting frequency
PFI Profit from innovation
PLC Product life cycle
PLT Patent Law Treaty
PME Patent monetization entity
PPH Patent Prosecution Highway
PPP Public-private partnership
PPP-chem Study of product and process patents in the chemical field
PPR Physical property right
PR Property right
PRV Swedish Patent and Registration Office (or Swedish PTO)
PTO Patent and Trademark Office
PTT Post, telegraph and telephone
R&D Research and development
RAND Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory terms
RoI Return on investment
QOL Quality of life
S&T Science and technology
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
SEK Swedish crown
SEPs Standard essential patents
SFs Submitted national filings
SFFs Swedish first filings
SIPO Chinese Patent and Trademark Office
SMEs Small and medium-sized companies
SSI Study of Sweden’s greatest innovations
SSOs Standard setting organizations
STEP Science, Technology and Economic Policy
TBI Technology-based industry
TBS Technology-based service industry
TDD Time division duplex
TLO Technology licensing office
TQM Total Quality Management
TRIPS The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
TTO Technology transfer office
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UP Unitary Patent
UPC Unified Patents Court
USD United States dollar
USPTO United States Patent and Trademark Office
VC Venture capital
VHS Video Home System
VINNOVA The Swedish Innovation Agency
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WHR World Happiness Report
WTO World Trade Organization