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Evolving properties of intellectual capitalism

Patents and Innovations for Growth and Welfare

Ove Granstrand

Intellectual capitalism is evolving, driving and driven by technological innovations and various forms of entrepreneruship. The purpose of this eagerly anticipated book is to analyze the linkages between R & D, patents, innovations, entrepreneurship and growth. Based on a large array of national empirical and policy studies, it elaborates on a comprehensive range of innovation and IP issues that are pertinent not only to Europe but to the world as a whole. These issues include the role of patents and licensing in the governance of technology and innovation, and the various uses and abuses of patents. It further elaborates on new IP phenomena in an increasingly patent-intensive world with patent-rich multinationals and patent-savvy new entrants from Asia. In a world facing challenges that call for innovative responses, the book contains a set of valuable policy recommendations for strengthening innovativeness for economic growth and ultimately for social value creation.
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Chapter 9: Patent and innovation system developments in Europe, Asia and the US

Ove Granstrand


An unusual spur of IP reform activities has followed in the aftermath of the advent of the pro-IP era. All countries in the sample have made significant reforms for developing innovation-based economies and becoming innovation-oriented countries. The international patent system as a Western capitalist institution has been adopted and strengthened, especially in Asian countries with China as a prime example. A switch to a strong IP regime tends to occur at a certain development stage for nationalistic protectionist reasons. Patent and innovation policies have risen to the top political and industrial levels, albeit still not well integrated. The pace of patenting and patent reforms has been remarkably high in Asia while lower in Europe and the US. Institutional complexity and gaming in an old and idiosyncratic institutional framework slowed down patent reform work in Europe and the US, producing a meandering policy-making process filled with overoptimistic expectations of “time to signing”. Cross-country convergence was found in several respects – innovation policy convergence with a common supply-side bias, patent system convergence and institutional convergence more generally.

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