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List of abbreviations
1  Innovation, IP and intellectual capitalism
1.1    Aims and outline
1.2    Conceptual framework
1.3    Intellectual capital and its growing importance
1.4    The evolving pro-IP regime
1.5    Patent and innovation developments in Asia
1.6    Development of new protective technologies
1.7    Innovation spiral statistics in various countries
1.8    Institutional environment
1.9    Book aims, outline and reading guidelines
1.10  Chapter summary and conclusions
2  Analytical framework
2.1    Chapter aims and outline
2.2    Conceptual framework
2.3    The main frame of reference
2.4    Basic models of innovation and new businesses
2.5    R&D, technology and innovation strategies
2.6    R&D, technology and innovation policies
2.7    The patent system’s structure and processes
2.8    Chapter summary and conclusions
3  Patents and innovations for growth and welfare – a literature review
3.1    Chapter aims and outline
3.2    Conceptual framework
3.3    Economic motives for the patent system and for patenting
3.4    Components in the innovation spiral
3.5    Relations in the innovation spiral
3.6    Recent literature on the relations in the innovation spiral
3.7    Chapter summary and conclusions
4  Methodology
4.1    Chapter aims and outline
4.2    The directive for the national investigation
4.3    The background according to the directive
4.4    The need for an investigation according to the directive
4.5    Interpretations of key concepts for conducting the national investigation
4.6    Previous studies
4.7    Summary of the national investigation’s research design and methodology
4.8    Chronology
4.9    The international follow-on investigation
4.10  Chapter summary and conclusions
5  Patents, innovations and growth – empirical analysis
5.1    Chapter aims and outline
5.2    Conceptual framework
5.3    Empirical studies
5.4    Chapter summary and conclusions
6  What explains fluctuations in patenting frequency and propensity?
6.1    Chapter aims and outline
6.2    Conceptual framework
6.3    Determinants of patent frequency
6.4    Patenting frequency and business cycles
6.5    Empirical data on application fluctuations
6.6    Explanatory factors behind fluctuations
6.7    The patent consultancy study (PEX4-PB)
6.8    Patenting in the US by Swedish large companies
6.9    Patenting in the US by top nation patentees
6.10  Chapter summary and conclusions
7  Discussion and general innovation and IP policy recommendations
7.1    Chapter aims and outline
7.2    Conceptual framework
7.3    A changing economy – changing institutional roles
7.4    Develop a national culture for IP, innovation and entrepreneurship
7.5    Strengthen the entrepreneurial system
7.6    Promote national appropriation of growth effects
7.7    Strengthen the international collaboration in the field of IP and business development
7.8    Promote English as an international language parallel with national languages
7.9    The international patent system and patent office organization
7.10  The patent system and patent office organization in Europe
7.11  The European IP litigation system
7.12  Change certain aspects of patentability criteria and their assessment
7.13  Create a national strategy council for innovations and IP
7.14  Chapter summary and conclusions
8  Special recommendations for increasing patent knowledge and patenting
8.1    Chapter aims and outline
8.2    Conceptual framework
8.3    How can awareness, understanding and insight about patent economics be created in companies?
8.4    How can companies’ opportunities and propensities to patent be stimulated and increased?
8.5    Chapter summary and conclusions
9  Patent and innovation system developments in Europe, Asia and the US
9.1    Chapter aims and outline
9.2    Conceptual framework
9.3    Patent and innovation system developments in Europe, Asia and the US
9.4    Uncertainties in patent and innovation policy-making
9.5    Innovation systems and policy convergence
9.6    Chapter summary and conclusions
10  Transnational policy recommendations and policy issues
10.1  Chapter aims and outline
10.2  Conceptual framework
10.3  Generalizability of results and policy recommendations
10.4  General recommendations
10.5  Special recommendations
10.6  New IP phenomena and policy issues
10.7  IPRs as tools for innovation governance
10.8  Suggestions for further research
10.9  Chapter summary and conclusions
11  Global innovation and intellectual capitalism
11.1  Chapter aims and outline
11.2  Conceptual framework
11.3  From national innovation and IP policy convergence towards a global innovation system
11.4  Future of the IPR system
11.5  Future of intellectual capitalism
11.6  Future of capitalism
11.7  Chapter summary and conclusions
12  Summary and conclusions
12.1  Chapter aims and outline
12.2  Summary of previous chapters
12.3  The innovation spiral
12.4  Intellectual capitalism
Appendix 1  Questionnaire
Appendix 2  Summary of study trips to Asia, 2010–12 (excerpt from letter of introduction)
Index of names
Index of subjects