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Evolving properties of intellectual capitalism

Patents and Innovations for Growth and Welfare

Ove Granstrand

Intellectual capitalism is evolving, driving and driven by technological innovations and various forms of entrepreneruship. The purpose of this eagerly anticipated book is to analyze the linkages between R & D, patents, innovations, entrepreneurship and growth. Based on a large array of national empirical and policy studies, it elaborates on a comprehensive range of innovation and IP issues that are pertinent not only to Europe but to the world as a whole. These issues include the role of patents and licensing in the governance of technology and innovation, and the various uses and abuses of patents. It further elaborates on new IP phenomena in an increasingly patent-intensive world with patent-rich multinationals and patent-savvy new entrants from Asia. In a world facing challenges that call for innovative responses, the book contains a set of valuable policy recommendations for strengthening innovativeness for economic growth and ultimately for social value creation.
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Index of subjects

Ove Granstrand

1G, 1489, 1534
2030 Agenda, 369
25 percent rule, 253, 313
2G, 14955, 334
3D-printing, 231, 287, 290
3G, 15055, 204, 334
4 percent goal, 283, 286, 289
4G, 1525, 204, 334
ABB, 143, 1578, 196, 198, 200, 215, 217
accounting, 8, 82, 26970, 378
activity models, 5660
actor (subject) concepts, 43
adopters (early/late), 434
definition, 43, 465
adoption, 42
definition, 46, 465
AGA, 107, 198
Air Preheater, 155
Akzo Nobel, 215
Allied Security Trust, 331
Amazon, 9
America Invents Act (AIA), 31214
Android, 152
Anoto, 196, 198, 200, 215
anti-commons problem, 87, 164, 255
definition, 355, 465
AOL, 335
appeal, 2512, 294, 314
definition, 465
Apple, 9, 1524, 346
application, 778, 84, 181, 188, 191, 2016, 208, 21012, 214
definition, 465
appropriation, 17072, 178, 23940, 41011
definition, 170, 239, 465
arbitrage, 239
ARIPO, 181, 246
artificial intelligence (AI), 6, 227, 360, 387, 394
Asea see ABB
Asia, 1416, 231, 300309, 438
Assa Abloy, 1578
asset, 64, 104, 26970, 284, 3789
definition, 269, 465
assignee, 76
definition, 465
AstraZeneca, 109, 143, 1456, 198, 200, 215
AT&T, 15051, 155
Atlas Copco, 1978, 200201
Australia, 1516, 1922, 24, 256, 31, 216
Austria, 1516, 19, 213, 26, 31, 130, 189, 216
autonomous entrepreneurship, 62, 143, 184, 325
definition, 465
awareness programs, 27071
backlog problem, 293
Bacou-Dalloz, 1578
Bangalore, 229, 238
Basic Law on Intellectual Property (Japan), 304, 306
basic patent, 145
definition, 180, 465
Bayh-Dole Act, 11, 307
Belgium, 1516, 19, 213, 26, 31, 189, 216
biomaterials see BIO-M
blanketing strategy, 14, 1634, 344
definition, 465
Bloomberg Innovation Index (BII), 22
big-bang policy, 276
big data, 9, 394
Big Five, 244, 248, 294, 304, 310, 316
see also IP5
BIO-M biotechnology, 144, 1467, 281
Bofors, 198, 201
Boliden, 229
Boston, 110, 229
Brazil, 20, 22, 245, 380
Brexit, 297
BRIC, 214
broken beyond repair, 314
Brånemark, 144, 146, 158
business cycles, 1834, 197, 287
business development, 2258, 2336, 24041, 273
buy-back, 335
buyer diffusion, 44, 57
definition, 44, 465
CAFC, 10, 243, 2512, 285, 312
Cambridge, 110
cannibalization, 50
definition, 50, 465
capitalize, 46, 3789, 413
definition, 465
CAPM, 97
carbon tax, 392
Casco, 155
cash-flow model, 546
CBI, 260
centralization, 249, 326, 394
certification system, 274, 289
chemical engineering field (C-field), 89, 94, 97, 15960, 285, 318
chicken-and-egg model, 5660
China, 12, 1416, 1922, 246, 31, 191, 214, 216, 300304, 310, 334, 348, 377, 384
China Mobile, 334
CIS survey see European Community Innovation Survey
claim, 314
definition, 465
client-attorney privilege, 275
climate change, 36870
cluster, 144, 158, 2378, 271, 273
Cochlear Corporation, 146
Comecon countries, 383
command and control, 227
commercial success, 45, 60
definition, 45, 466
commercialization, 45, 634, 92, 17071, 178
community patent (CP), 2469, 2956, 297
company-external factors, 264, 276
company-internal factors, 264, 276
competence, 2369, 2657, 2735, 2778
competitive means, 36, 127, 166
complement, 50
definition, 50, 466
complementarities, 232, 260, 325, 333, 374, 383, 396, 416
compulsory license, 305, 339, 357, 364
definition, 466
computer-related invention, 2578
see also invention
conscript education, 289
continental law, 306
contracting, 1545, 235, 343, 356
contractual infrastructure, 77, 91, 328, 33940, 352, 358, 3624
convergence paradox, 320
convergence policy, 31620, 365, 367
definition, 292, 475
Copenhagen, 238
copylefting, 331, 339, 387
definition, 466
copyright, 17, 345, 3745
definition, 5, 466
copyright industries, 17
core technology, 154, 332
definition, 105, 466
corporate entrepreneurship, 62, 325
definition, 466
corporate governance, 358, 376
definition, 466
cost-benefit trade-off, 88, 352, 362
counterfeit, 7, 14, 253
definition, 466
counterpart patents
definition, 181, 466
see also subsequent patents
court issue, 2512
Court of Justice of the European Union, 2967
creative destruction, 108, 387, 416
definition, 108, 466
crowdsourcing, 372
cultural factors, 62, 222
Czech Republic, 19, 24, 26, 31, 1879
Dagens Industri, 133, 161
database rights, 5, 9, 375, 397
deadweight loss, 84, 88
definition, 84, 466
debt valley, 68
Decade of Innovation, 305
decentralization, 234, 351
decline of patenting, 1889
defendant, 243
definition, 467
defense and security sector, 226
demand pull, 60, 372, 389
definition, 478
denationalization, 14, 233
Denmark, 1516, 19, 213, 256, 31, 188, 193, 216
design (patent), 305
definition, 467
diconvergence, 408
definition, 323, 393, 467
Diet, 306
diffusion see buyer diffusion, seller diffusion
definition, 44, 46, 467
digital/cyber warfare, 227
digitalization, 56, 365
diminishing returns, 49, 103, 116, 229
definition, 467
discovery, 41, 294
definition, 467
disruptive change, 197, 370, 388
diversification, 60, 1047, 110, 232, 386, 409
definition, 467
divestment, 65, 147, 341
DNA, 314
DoCoMo, 1512, 155
dotcom bubble, 6
duopolist, 344
dynamic competition, 11, 93, 1212, 311
e-Bay, 313, 357
early/late mover advantages, 545, 240, 242, 244, 319
definition, 467
see also first mover advantages
Easterlin paradox, 38, 11516
Eastern Europe, 119
EC (European Commission), 73, 128, 132, 294, 297, 299
economic growth, 3, 23, 478, 823, 99100, 102, 11019
definition, 467
economic success, 45, 110, 222
definition, 45, 467
economic welfare, 83
economies of scale, 12, 229, 286, 331, 336
definition, 467
economies of scope, 333, 336
definition, 467
see also complementarities
economies of space, 237
definition, 467
economies of speed, 56, 105
definition, 467
EITIM (European Institute of Technology and Innovation Management), 137, 296
elasticity, 1723, 178, 411
definition, 173, 467
electrical engineering field (E-field), 196
electricity area (E-area), 191, 199, 217
Electrolux, 107, 109, 198, 200201, 215
electronic warfare, 227
emerging technology
definition, 467
employment, 163, 2779, 289
EMU (Economic and Monetary Union), 381
enabling technology, 376
definition, 467
endogeneity, 370
endogenous growth theory, 99100, 102, 111, 409
energy sector, 225
English as company language etc., 2423, 262
Entific Medical Systems, 146
entrepreneur, 43, 54, 340
definition, 43, 46, 468
entrepreneurial financing, 667
definition, 468
entrepreneurial government, 398, 415
definition, 468
entrepreneurial system, 61, 143, 224239, 262
entrepreneurship
definition, 44, 468
environmental/natural resources, 230, 260, 369, 378
EPC, 75, 1878, 215, 2936
EPLA, 252, 2935
EPO, 12, 75, 77, 160, 185, 190, 20911, 214, 24851, 2967, 348, 468
EPO-Sweden, 251
Ericsson, 14955, 157, 183, 196, 198, 200202, 215, 217, 346
ESAB, 109
espionage, 383
definition, 468
essential patent, 333
definition, 468
ETSI, 151, 154, 333
EU Commission, 258, 260
EU Council, 295
Europe, 3, 79, 245, 24753, 2938, 314, 323
European Community Innovation Survey, 21, 112, 169, 178, 410
European Court of Justice, 294
European Innovation Council, 298
European IP court, 243
European patent, 77, 177, 2489, 257, 289, 2936
European Patent Attorneys, 175, 177, 289
European Patent Convention (EPC), 75, 1878, 2936, 296
European Patent Court, 293, 295
European Roundtable initiative, 2978
European Union (EU), 3, 19, 60, 246, 2937, 381, 391
European Union Report (EUR), 283
evergreening, 94, 145, 329, 3435, 362
definition, 343, 468
evolutionary growth theory, 99100, 102, 409
evolutionary law, 359
exhaustion or destruction of renewable/unrenewable environmental resources, 369
exogeneity, 370
expiration, 345, 349, 416
definition, 468
exploitation, 615, 147, 157,
export, 125, 127, 306, 321
externality, 98, 109, 111, 2389
definition, 468
externalization of technology, 63
extra-legal, 35052, 356, 376, 397
definition, 468
extra-legal IPR see extra-legal
Facebook, 17, 335
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 309, 311
fencing strategy, 14, 341, 344
definition, 468
file sharing, 17
financial crisis, 23, 27, 238, 370
financial innovation, 388
financial sector, 226, 28081
financing, 667, 2834, 372
definition, 468
Finland, 1516, 1920, 223, 256, 31, 169, 186, 188, 193, 216
fintech, 226, 281
first-filing application (FF), 217
first mover advantages, 98, 115, 117
definition, 54, 468
first-to-file/first-to-invent, 244, 31113
definition, 468
Ford, 240, 347
foreign direct investments (FDIs), 94, 109, 230, 318, 357
foreign is better (FIB), 334
fragmentation, 245, 248, 340, 354
France, 1516, 1922, 246, 31, 130, 190, 216
FRAND, 154, 3313, 339, 357, 360
freedom to operate (FTO), 86, 90, 340
Fritz Machlup, 83, 88, 95, 322, 358, 374
frugal innovation, 304, 326
FTO see freedom to operate
Gambro, 1578, 198
game theory, 333
GATT, 11
GAZ, 134, 16061
gazelle companies, 16061
GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), 9
General Motors, 240
general-purpose technologies (GPTs), 105, 287
definition, 105, 469
German ministry for education and research (BMBF), 282
German office for patents and trademarks (DPMA), 282
Germany, 1516, 1926, 31, 130, 190, 193, 216, 316
GGVV region, 132, 134, 1634
Gibrat’s law, 104, 201
GII index of innovativeness, 22, 2630, 34
Glasnost, 384
global challenges, 36873, 389, 415
global crime, 369
global-for-global innovation, 367, 408
definition, 367, 469
Global Innovation Index see GII index of innovativeness
global innovation spiral, 3667, 370
definition, 367, 469
global innovation system, 36673
definition, 366, 469
global or local wars, 369
global pandemics and health problems, 367, 369
global patent, 246, 360
global warming, 367, 395, 413
globalization, 221, 2323, 292, 320, 366, 377
Gnosjö region see GGVV-region
Google, 152, 168, 331, 334, 337, 342, 349
Gothenburg, 238
governance, 93, 3528, 35960, 371, 3735, 39091
definition, 469
governance cost, 256, 355, 359, 376
definition, 469
governance failure, 220, 326, 328, 352, 362
definition, 469
government procurement, 132, 371
governmental failure, 220, 390
definition, 220, 469
grace period, 294
definition, 469
Great Britain see UK
great recession see financial crisis
gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD), 19
gross domestic product (GDP), 24, 26, 28, 29, 34
gross national income (GNI), 18, 19, 25
gross national product (GNP), 82
gross regional product (GRP), 82
growth
definition, 46, 469
growth accounting, 23, 82, 96
growth appropriation, 72, 23940, 411
definition, 469
growth at macro level, 1013
growth at micro level, 10310
growth axes, 2378, 262
definition, 237, 469
growth of patents and innovations, 14079
growth paradox, 130
growth region, 2378
growth spiral, 47, 1723
growth strategies, 105, 163
growth theory, 23, 99100, 102, 409
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications), 14952, 1545
Götaverken, 197
hierarchical failures see management failures
HIT, 134, 1613
HL Display, 1568, 202
Holland see Netherlands
Horizon 2020, 292, 296
Huawei, 155, 296
human capital, 79
Human Development Index (HDI), 259, 34
humanoid capital, 8
Hungary, 15, 19, 24, 26, 31, 189
Huskvarna, 238
Husqvarna, 1578, 215
hybrid property/liability approaches, 357, 3634
Höganäs, 155, 1578
IAS (International Accounting Standards), 269, 379
IBM, 349
Iceland, 19, 226, 31, 188
idea, 53, 143, 351
definition, 469
IKEA, 230, 240
imitation, 434, 57, 60, 62, 113, 204, 206, 317
definition, 43, 46, 469
imitation competition, 84, 113
imitative R&D, 44
imitator, 54, 57, 84, 98, 115, 17071
definition, 43, 469
immaterial/intellectual/intangible property (IP), 2223, 24041, 25960
immaterial/intellectual property right (IPR), 5, 9, 227, 373
imperial overreach, 301
inbound and outbound strategies, 645
Incentive-to-Disclose theory, 93
Incentive-to-Innovate theory, 93
Incentive-to-Invent theory, 93
increasing returns, 96, 229, 242, 326, 410
definition, 469
incumbent, 94, 331
definition, 470
India, 1415, 1920, 22, 245, 190, 214, 3015
Indian Industry Confederation, 304
industrial applicability, 2568, 2856
industrial economics, 239, 273
industrial network thinning, 232
definition, 232, 470
industrial restructuring, 109, 227
industrial sector, 141, 236, 280
information and communication technology (ICT), 56, 225
information paradox, 256
definition, 470
information technology (IT), 56
infringement, 10, 166, 243, 290, 295, 331, 360
definition, 470
injunction, 253, 295, 311, 339
definition, 470
injunctive relief see injunction
innovation
definition, 41, 46, 470
innovation and entrepreneurship, 612, 2224
definition, 470
innovation and IP policy (IIP policy), 400, 438
innovation and IP policy convergence, 367
innovation council, 261, 300, 304
innovation eco-system, 61, 108
definition, 470
innovation economics, 40, 78, 2725, 289
innovation economy, 220, 3045
innovation process, 534, 5660
innovation races, 56, 86, 103, 319
definition, 86, 470
innovation spiral, 1730, 95117, 40112
definition, 470
innovation stage, 11315
innovation system, 61, 227, 292312, 36673
definition, 61, 470
innovative R&D, 44, 48
innovator, 43, 54, 84, 98
definition, 43, 471
institutional innovation, 3913
INT (Study of international conditions), 133
intangible assets, 82, 269, 290
definition, 46, 471
intellectual capital, 510
definition, 3, 46, 471
intellectual capitalism, 8, 10, 37782, 41216
definition, 8, 471
intellectual property (IP), 5, 42, 2223, 24041, 25960, 306
definition, 4, 46, 471
Intellectual Property High Court in Japan, 294
intellectual property rights (IPRs), 5, 9, 227, 373
definition, 41, 46, 471
Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive (IPRED), 294, 296
intellectual rights, 363, 375, 397
definition, 471
Intellectual Ventures, 138, 330
inter-firm, 58
inter-organizational, 3389, 351, 355, 389, 398
inter-organizational innovation collaborations (ICLs), 338, 351
intra-firm, 58, 268, 347, 351, 356
International Accounting Standards (IAS1-41)
see IAS
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS1-41), 269
internationalization, 96, 22021, 2323, 366
Internet, 152, 202, 227, 292, 337
internet of things (IoT), 8, 96, 369
invalidation, 175, 360
definition, 471
invent around, 49, 85, 1724, 303, 333
definition, 49, 471
invention, 41, 43, 77
definition, 46
invention ban, 377
inventiveness see level of inventiveness
investment, 55, 615
investment character, 2589, 288
IP see intellectual property
IP academy, 117
IP assembly problem, 87, 255, 34043
definition, 87, 340, 471
IP audits, 27981
IP awareness and support, 271
IP bubble, 3356, 378
IP counseling, 241, 271
IP culture, 146, 2224, 261
IP disassembly, 34043
definition, 340, 471
IP dispute costs, 285
IP economics, 176, 238, 270, 2735
IP education, 135, 1757, 277
IP phenomena, 32752
IP policy research, 33, 36, 400
IP regime, 1013
definition, 5, 471
IP specialists, 2779
IP strategies, 12, 266, 281, 288
IP volunteering, 349, 351, 362
definition, 349, 472
IP-awareness program, 271
IP-related crime, 7
IP5, 244, 248, 294, 304, 310, 316
IPA (Innovator’s Patent Agreement), 349
IPC (International Patent Classification), 160, 191, 199, 337
IPC system (International Patent Classification system), 160, 191
IPE (Study of the supply and demand of patent and IP education in Sweden), 135, 1757
IPM (IP management), 1345, 1534, 34950
IPO (Initial public offering), 678
IPR-related investments, 283
Ireland, 225, 26, 31, 348
Israel, 1516, 1926, 31, 38, 216
IT bubble, 66, 180, 197, 203, 217, 236, 336, 378
IT companies, 1649, 178, 378
IT-SME, 1334, 1649
ITU (International Telecommunication Union), 149, 1512, 154
IVA/PRV study, 188, 201, 267
Japan, 12, 1516, 1927, 31, 130, 171, 191, 216, 222, 3046, 310
Japanese Basic Law on Intellectual Property, 306
joint venture, 300, 339
JPO (Japan Patent and Trademark Office), 191, 246, 304
jugaad, 304, 326
Jönköping, 238
key patent, 14659
definition, 472
key technology, 412
definition, 472
key trends, 12
KidCards, 135, 168
King, 231
KIPO (Korean Intellectual Property Office), 249, 306
known unknowns, 82, 111, 368, 395
Koizumi, 304
Kondratieff waves, 184
Korean Patent Act, 308
knowledge-based economy, 1, 5
knowledge-intensive companies, 125, 275, 27980
Kodak, 335, 342
large companies, 107, 109, 143, 16975, 1778, 21012, 21718, 2326
learning by doing, 99, 239, 270, 334
level of inventiveness, 40, 255, 266
definition, 472
LG, 187
liability, 3578, 3634
license, 6772
definition, 67, 472
license broker, 65
definition, 472
Linköping, 238
Lisbon Agenda, 292
litigation, 2513, 3456
definition, 472
lobbying, 121, 252, 322
London agreement, 2934
London protocol, 2934
Losec, 1445, 344
loser pay scheme, 331
LTE (Long Term Evolution), 152, 1545
M&A (Mergers and acquisitions), 144, 341, 347
M-form, 351, 392
definition, 351, 472
machine intelligence, 6, 8
Machlup type of status quo, 81, 88, 374
MADs (M&As and divestments), 3412
management cost see governance cost
management failures, 8, 221, 326, 390
definition, 220, 472
Marconi, 58
market bubbles, 335, 378
market court, 2523, 298
market diversification, 1057
see also diversification
market failure, 220, 326
definition, 220, 472
market lead time, 556, 170, 172
definition, 55, 473
market need, 56, 58
market/need differentiation, 106
market segment, 249
definition, 473
market to book (MTB) value, 378
Marx, 101, 383, 385, 387
me-too-plus, 231
mechanical engineering field (M-field), 197, 199, 217, 306, 318
medical and health sector, 236, 262, 281
Meiji restoration, 377
MELT (Managerial, economic, legal and technological), 35, 175
Metso, 186, 198, 200, 202
micro-legal analysis
definition, 473
Microsoft, 17, 187, 313, 335, 342, 346
military entrepreneurship, 325
military sector, 281, 289, 3834
Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation, 270, 272
MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) Japan, 69
moral hazard, 337
moral rights, 353, 363
definition, 473
Motorola, 15055, 332
Motorola Mobility, 334, 342
MoU (Memorandum of Understanding), 150
multi-bilingual world, 242
definition, 242, 473
multi-generation patent, 153
definition, 473
multi-generation technology
definition, 473
multi-standard patent, 153, 332
definition, 332, 473
multi-technological companies/multitechnology corporation
definition, 473
multinational companies, 127, 136, 215, 232
multinational corporation (MNC), 58, 232, 298, 347, 356, 361, 367
multinational patent cooperation, 245
Munich, 229, 238, 246
Munters, 155
NAE (National Academy of Engineering), 255
naked IP, 333, 342, 351
nanotechnology, 231, 287
NASDAQ, 335
Nash equilibrium, 246
National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 311
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 311
national competence center, 250, 271, 273, 289
national entrepreneurial system, 62
definition, 473
National IIP council, 310
National IIP objective, 310
National IIP strategy, 310
national innovation system, 61, 177, 232
definition, 473
National Intellectual Capital (NIC), 23, 28, 34
national investigation, 1247, 1315, 2645, 281, 285
national patent (NP), 75, 185, 249
national patent offices (NPOs), 75, 185, 187, 2478, 295
National Research Council (NRC), 73, 309
nationalization, 242, 325
natural catastrophes, 369
Netherlands, 1516, 1923, 256, 31, 130, 189, 193, 216, 348, 356
network capital, 378
network defense, 227
new economy, the, 10, 36
new entrant, 344
definition, 473
Nexium, 145, 344
NIC (National Intellectual Capital), 10, 23, 28, 34
NIR (Journal and association for Nordic immaterial property rights protection), 241
NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony System), 1489, 154, 240
Nobel laureates, 21
Nobel Prize, 2021, 34, 372, 387
Nobel Biocare, 143, 146, 198
Nokia, 14951, 1867, 215
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 221, 350, 372
non-obviousness see level of inventiveness
non-obviousness requirement, 285
definition, 474
non-producing (non-practicing) entity (NPE), 164, 295, 329
definition, 164, 473
see also patent troll
non-profit foundation (NPF), 329, 34951, 362
Nordic cooperation, 241, 250
Nordic Water, 1568
Norrköping, 238
Nortel, 335
Norway, 15, 19, 213, 256, 31, 169, 188, 216
NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone), 148, 15052, 155
Ny Teknik, 133, 161
object concepts, 4043
OECD, 7, 1821, 24, 2634, 38, 137, 317, 321, 401
OEM (original equipment manufacturer), 334
omeprazole see Losec
open innovation, 634, 80, 90, 147, 318, 33840
open science, 87, 367
open source, 87, 339, 349
Orbitel, 150
organizational innovation, 338, 351
Oslo, 238
osseointegration, 146
over-the-counter (OTC), 335
overpopulation and mass migration, 369
PACE, 296
Page Rank method, 168
Pareto, 246, 357
Paris Convention, 75, 78, 181, 292
patent
definition, 3, 41, 46, 474
Patent Act of 2005, 309, 313
patent agencies, 1867, 243, 287
patent and IP language, 243, 262, 294
patent application see application
patent assertion entities (PAEs), 329
patent auctions, 64, 3338
definition, 474
patent awareness, 161, 177, 27072
definition, 474
patent barometers, 271
patent blanket, 164, 344
patent cliff, 114, 145
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), 75, 308
definition, 474
patent court, 252
patent culture, 131, 183, 2223, 230, 267, 279
patent disputes, 11, 13, 251, 267, 285, 288, 345, 352, 362
patent economics, 238, 261, 26576, 2889
patent economy, 285
patent education, 277, 289
patent family, 1556, 160
definition, 20, 474
patent fence, 14, 344
patent flooding, 360
definition, 474
patent information, 49, 90, 166, 2867
patent infringement see infringement
patent law, 243, 256, 292, 294
patent licenses, 70, 166
patent loans, 283, 290
patent market, 127
patent office organization, 24451
patent pending, 283
definition, 474
patent policy, 88, 276, 315, 318
patent pool, 70, 152
patent power, 218, 341
definition, 474
patent prizes, 279
Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH), 246, 303, 3079
patent protection, 77, 157, 174
patent race, 49, 349
Patent Reform Act, 309, 314
patent right, 41, 84
definition, 3, 474
patent specialists, 272, 2745
patent system, 758
patent thicket, 344
patent troll, 346
definition, 474
patent understanding and insight, 1614
definition, 474
patent wars see patent disputes
see also non-producing entity
patent/growth spiral, 47, 1723, 178
patentability, 2549
patentable invention, 169, 2046, 217, 380
definition, 471
see also invention
patenting competence, 266, 288
patenting frequency (PF), 1824
definition, 181, 474
patenting propensity, 1812, 2037, 264, 276
definition, 181, 474
pay for delay settlement, 345, 361
PCT application, 77, 181, 185
Perestroika, 324, 3834
PEST (Study of exploitation of important patents), 1334, 146, 1559
PEX, 134
PEX4-LF, 1334, 16975
PEX4-PB, 20812
PEX4-SEPTO, 135
PEX4-SME, 1334
pharmaceutical industry, 109, 1435, 344, 410
Pharmacia, 109, 143, 184, 198, 200, 215
physical property right (PPR), 328, 338, 355, 363, 386
piracy see counterfeit
plaintiff, 243
definition, 475
planet Earth, 378
PLT (patent law treaty), 299, 308
PME (patent monetization entity), 32930
policy, 31220, 3234, 32752, 36773
definition, 475
policy convergence see convergence
post-grant opposition, 244, 257, 31112
poverty and wealth inequity, 369, 395, 415
PPP-Chem, 1334, 15960
price differentiation (discrimination), 251, 337
definition, 475
priority date, 778
definition, 77, 475
priority patent, 181, 184
definition, 180, 475
priority (patent) application, 77, 181, 184
definition, 77, 475
privateering, 33031
definition, 330, 475
privatization, 6, 1617, 87, 3256, 380
privilegia exclusive, 299
prize design, 73, 372
process innovation, 42, 11314, 15960
definition, 42, 475
producing entities (PEs), 329
product differentiation, 186, 385
definition, 475
product diversification, 1056
definition, 475
see also diversification
product innovation, 11415, 15960, 410
definition, 42, 475
product life cycle (PLC), 547, 344
product life cycle model, 546
product renewal, 143
profit from innovation (PFI), 96
progressive global tax, 116
pro-licensing era, 69, 278, 364, 414
pro-patent era, 2, 1012, 87, 90, 329, 362
propertize, 10, 413
definition, 475
property right (PR), 355
proprietary vs open standards, 170
definition, 475
prospect theory, 93
protective technologies, 1617
proxy absorption, 112
PRV (Swedish Patent and Registration Office), 1926
applications, 1936
PTOs (Patent and Trademark Offices), 181, 18791
PTT (Post, telegraph and telephone), 1489
public disclosure, 286
public goods, 224, 3256, 390
public-private partnership (PPP), 1334, 15960
publication race, 86
Qualcomm, 1515
quality and quantity of government, 30, 32, 38, 390
quality assurance system, 272, 289
quality issues, 13, 262
quality of life (QoL), 100, 393, 399
quasi-ownership, 351
R&D divergence (industrial), 235, 262, 287
definition, 235, 476
R&D protectionism, 87
R&D race, 207
R&D resources, 163, 1723, 2036, 217, 277, 2823, 289
R&D spill-overs, 98, 111
R&D tax credits, 734, 3478, 371
R&D tax deductions, 734, 277, 317, 348
R&D tax-deduction system, 2779
raison d’être, 374
RAND (reasonable and Non-Discriminatory terms), 332
Reagan (president), 11
recombinant growth theory, 81, 100, 104
regional entrepreneurship, 2378, 262
relational capital, 8, 378
research and development (R&D), 44, 6175, 956, 1013, 112, 227, 277, 2837, 317
definition, 44, 46, 475
research industry, 17
residual factor, 99, 102, 113
return on investment (RoI), 45, 69, 98, 350
definition, 476
rate of return on investment, 22, 98
definition, 476
reverse engineering, 172
definition, 476
Revision Act of November 29, 2000 (of EPC), 294
revocation, 294, 358, 364, 376
definition, 476
risk, 667, 92, 388
definition, 476
robotics, 2, 96, 227, 290, 369, 387, 394
Rockstar, 331, 346
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA), 1289
royalty, 279, 284, 3323, 357
royalty stacking, 360
definition, 476
RPX, 331
rule of law and democracy, 30, 32, 38
Russia, 1922, 246, 28, 31, 216, 3834
S. Africa, 1516, 22, 256, 28, 31
S. Korea, 1516, 1926, 31, 216, 30610
Saab, 95, 198, 200202, 215
Samsung, 138, 1523, 187
Sandvik, 155, 157, 169, 198, 200201, 215
Scandinavia, 224, 238
Scania, 1978, 200201, 215
Schick, 345
Schumpeter, 42, 98102, 108, 113, 143, 304, 385, 387
science and technology (S&T), 20, 58, 73, 96, 317, 367, 398
science differentiation, 106
science-and-technology push, 58
Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP), 255, 311
securitization, 284
seed capital, 68
self-destruction, 383, 385, 389, 398, 415
seller diffusion, 45, 57
definition, 45, 476
semi-adeptness, 265
seminal patent see basic patent
definition, 476
service innovation, 159
service sector, 61, 212, 224, 262
settlement
definition, 476
Shapley valuation, 333
sharing economy, 100
Shield Act, 312, 331
Siemens-Elema, 196, 198, 200
Silicon Valley, 110, 229, 237
Singapore, 1516, 19, 226, 28, 31, 214, 216
SINO-US Intellectual Property Treaty, 302
SIPO (Chinese Patent and Trademark Office), 244, 249, 348
Skaltek, 1578
Skandia, 284, 378
SKF, 107, 109, 198, 2012, 356
Skype, 231
small and medium-sized (SME) companies, 1649, 282
SME, 1334, 1649, 229, 237, 282
snowballing effect, 274, 408
social media, 6, 384, 394
social welfare, 83, 221
software companies see IT companies
software patent, 165
solar energy, 8, 378
Solow-type residual, 7
Sophia Antipolis, 110, 238
Soviet planned economy, 101, 383
Soviet Union, 10, 227, 3823
see also USSR
Spearman’s rho, 22, 25, 2830, 334
spill-over, 232, 239, 287
definition, 476
spin-off, 65, 10910, 141
definition, 476
Spotify, 231
SSI (Study of Sweden’s greatest innovations), 1334, 1414, 155
SSOs (standard setting organizations), 332
standard essential patents (SEPs), 1535, 296, 360
standardization, 14953
start-up, 63, 65, 68, 110, 168
state entrepreneurship, 612, 2248, 3267, 398
state ownership, 222, 225, 280, 319
state-led intellectual capitalism, 414
Steinbeis Foundation, 330
Stockholm, 238
Stora Enso, 198
Strategic Council on Intellectual Property, 304
strategic patent(ing), 270
definition, 476
Strategic Program, 304, 307
Streitwertherabsetzung, 253
sub-technology, 150
definition, 476
submarine patent, 330
definition, 477
submitted national filings (SFs), 189, 192
subsequent patents see counterpart patents
substitute, 50, 74, 85, 912, 153, 333
definition, 50, 477
sui generis, 9, 375
definition, 477
supermarket for IP, 336
supplementary certification, 275
supra-national cooperation, 391
surveillance, 227, 369, 376
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 25
Sweden, 2, 1516, 1928, 31, 12531, 1417, 171, 1757, 1845, 188, 193, 201, 216, 238, 251
Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, 146
Swedish companies, 127, 131, 158, 21213
Swedish first filings (SFFs), 189202
switching cost, 17071
definition, 477
Switzerland, 1516, 1923, 256, 31, 130, 189, 193, 216
system, 8395, 22439, 24454, 292312, 36777
definition, 477
systems analysis, 366
Taiwan, 1516, 19, 23, 193, 216, 301, 303
tax credit, 73, 3478, 372
tax financing, 222
tax haven, 3478
tax policy, 2212, 3468
tax race, 349
TD-LTE (Time Division Long Term Evolution), 334
TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access), 334
TDD (time division duplex), 152
technical bottleneck, 287
definition, 477
technical invention, 256
definition, 471
see also invention
technical knowledge see technology
technical performance dimension, 107
definition, 477
technical success, 44, 60, 181, 326
definition, 44, 477
techno-nationalism, 87, 293
techno-optimism, 369, 396
technological convergence/fusion/confluence, 81, 105, 1523
definition, 477
technological fixes, 369
technological innovation, 42, 113, 122, 392
definition, 477
technological lock-in (lock-out)
definition, 478
technological substitution/competition/complementation, 343
definition, 478
technology
definition, 46, 478
technology acquisition, 635
technology base, 61, 64, 104, 153
definition, 64, 478
technology diversification, 1047, 110, 122, 232
definition, 104, 478
technology exploitation, 635
technology procurement, 60, 227, 231, 233, 236, 281
technology scanning, 634
technology system see technology base
definition, 478
technology trade, 69, 72, 166
definition, 478
technology-based industry (TBI), 133
technology-based service industry (TBS), 133
technology-induced unemployment, 369
technology push, 58, 372, 389
definition, 478
telecommunications, 146, 14855
Telia, 129, 15051, 198, 200, 202, 217, 280
Tetra Pak, 1578, 201
Texas Instruments, 267
therapeutic methods, 257, 259
time to market, 557, 172
definition, 55, 478
TIPO, 303
TLO (technology licensing office), 350
Tobin tax, 372
Tobin’s q-value, 7
Toshiba, 138
total quality management (TQM), 222
trade secret, 5, 168, 171
definition, 5, 478
trademark, 335, 345, 349
definition, 5, 478
train trainer programs, 272
transaction cost, 339, 361
definition, 478
triangulation, 131, 1379
TRIPS (The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), 75, 87, 292, 294, 301, 306, 319, 321, 38081
Tsukuba, 110, 238
TTOs, 1767, 350
Turing test, 387
Twitter, 349
UK, 1516, 1926, 31, 130, 190, 193, 216, 297, 316
Ukraine, 193
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), 150, 152, 154
UN General Assembly, 25
under-patenting, 125, 275, 280
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), 28, 34
unemployment, 124, 3879, 395, 398, 415
Unified Patent Inc., 331
Uniform Patent Court (UPC), 253, 2934, 297, 316
unitary patent (UP), 789, 181, 184, 2467, 2512, 293, 298
Unitary Patent Court (UPC), 298
United Kingdom see UK
United States of America see USA
university entrepreneurship, 61, 325
university sector, 224, 28081
unmanned vehicles, 227
Uppsala, 238
US Congress, 309, 313
US District Courts, 10
US House of Representatives, 309
US patent system, 889, 31113
US Supreme Court, 10, 257, 312, 357
USA, 12, 1516, 1926, 31, 130, 191, 193, 21113, 21516, 309312, 348
USPTO, 191, 210, 218, 244, 309, 312, 316, 348
USSR, 15, 301, 3767, 3834, 399
utility, 270, 304
definition, 478
venture capital (VC), 66, 68, 241
definition, 479
VHS (Video Home System), 91
Vinnova (The Swedish Innovation Agency), xv
Volvo, 109, 143, 155, 198, 200, 215, 240, 347
Walt Disney Company, 345
welfare, 81123
definition, 456, 479
willful infringement, 231, 311
definition, 479
WiMax, 1523
WIPO, 1112, 20, 22, 28, 34, 756, 137, 185, 18791, 209, 299, 302, 308
World Bank, 7, 9, 2021, 24, 28, 324, 95, 137
World Happiness Report (WHR), 25
world patent, 77
World Trade Organization (WTO), 87, 245, 300, 3023, 305, 310, 313, 380
X-risk, 368, 387, 389, 3956, 398, 415
Yahoo, 168
Yale study, 170
Year-campaigns, 271