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North-South Regional Trade Agreements as Legal Regimes

A Critical Assessment of the EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement

Clair Gammage

This book offers a critical reflection of the North-South regional trade agreements (RTAs), known as the Economic Partnership Agreements, negotiated between the EU and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries. Conceiving of regions as legal regimes, Clair Gammage highlights the challenges facing developing countries when negotiating RTAs with developed countries and interrogates the assumption that these agreements will and can promote sustainable development through trade.
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Abbreviations and acronyms

A Critical Assessment of the EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement

Clair Gammage

AAMS              Associated African and Malagasy States

AAS                 African Associated States

AB                   Appellate Body

ACP                 African, Caribbean, and Pacific States

AEC                 African Economic Community

AFD                 Agence Française de Développement

AfDB                African Development Bank

AfT                   Aid for Trade

AGOA              African Growth and Opportunity Act

ANC                 African National Congress

ANSA              Angola, Namibia, and South Africa

APRM              African Peer Review Mechanism

ASEAN            Association of Southeast Asian Nations

AU                   African Union

BLMNS           Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland

BLNS              Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland

BLS                 Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland

BSO                 business support office

CAFEIN           CARIFORUM EPA Implementation Network

CAFTA            Central America Free Trade Agreement

CAP                 Common Agricultural Policy

CARICOM      Caribbean Community

CARIFORUM   Caribbean Forum

CCP                 common commercial policy

CEAO               Economic Community of West Africa

CEB                 Council of Europe Development Bank

C-EPA              CARIFORUM EPA

CET                  common external tariff

CETA               EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

CFSP                Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU)

CJEU                Court of Justice of the European Union

CMA                Common Monetary Area

COMESA        Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

CONSAS         Constellation of Southern African States

CONSEA         Constellation of Southern African Economies

COSATU         Congress of Southern African Trade Unions

CPA                 Cotonou Partnership Agreement

CRIP                Caribbean Regional Indicative Programme

CRNM             Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery

CRP                 Common Revenue Pool

CRTA              Committee on Regional Trade Agreements

CSME             Caribbean Single Market and Economy

CTD                Committee for Trade and Development

CTG                Committee for Trade in Goods

CTPSDP         Caribbean Trade and Private Sector Development Programme

CU                  customs union

DFID               Department for International Development

DFQF              duty free quota free

DG DEVCO   Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development

DR-CAFTA    Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement

DSB                Dispute Settlement Body

DSU                Dispute Settlement Understanding

EAC                East African Community

EBA                Everything But Arms

EBRD              European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC                    European Community

ECCAS            Economic Community of Central African States

ECOWAS         Economic Community of West African States

ECSC               European Coal and Steel Community

EDF                 European Development Fund

EEC                 European Economic Community

EFSI                European Fund for Strategic Investments

EFTA               European Free Trade Area

EIB                  European Investment Bank

EPA                 Economic Partnership Agreement

ESA                 Eastern and Southern Africa

EU                   European Union

FCORs            French Caribbean Outermost Regions

FDI                 foreign direct investment

FLS                 Frontline States

FTA                 Free Trade Agreement

FTAA               Free Trade Area of the Americas

FYR                 Former Yugoslav Republic

GATS               General Agreement on Trade in Services

GATT               General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GBLF               Grant and Loan Blending Facility

GDP                 gross domestic product

GNI                 Gross National Income

GSP                 Generalised System of Preferences

HCTs               High Commission Territories

HIPCs             Heavily Indebted Poor Countries

ICJ                  International Court of Justice

IDC                 Independent Development Corporation

IEPA                interim economic partnership agreement

ILO                 International Labour Organisation

IMF                International Monetary Fund

IPE                 international political economy

ISI                  Import Substitution Industrialisation

ITO                International Trade Organisation

LDC               Least Developed Country

LLDC             Landlocked Least Developed Country

LPA                Lagos Plan of Action

MDC               Maputo Development Corridor

MDGs             Millennium Development Goals

MERCOSUR  Mercado Común del Sur

MFN                most favoured nation

MIF                 Multilateral Investment Fund

MRAs              Mutual Recognition Agreements

NAFTA           North American Free Trade Agreement

NEPAD           New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NGO               non-governmental organisation

NIP                 National Indicative Programme

NRT                New Regionalism Theory

NSA                non-state actors

OAU               Organisation of African Unity

OCTs               Overseas Countries and Territories

OECD              Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OECS               Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

OHCHR           Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights

PRSP               Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

PTA                 preferential trade agreement

QR                  quantitative restriction

REC                Regional Economic Community

RIFF               Regional Integration Facilitation Forum

RIP                 Regional Indicative Programme

RISDP            Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan

RMA               Rand Monetary Area

ROO               rules of origin

RTA                Regional Trade Agreement

SACU             Southern African Customs Union

SADC             Southern African Development Community

SADCC          Southern African Development Coordination Conference

SAPP             Southern African Power Pool

SAPs              structural adjustment programmes

SDGs             Sustainable Development Goals

SDI                Spatial Development Initiative

SDT               Special and Differential Treatment

SEA               Single European Act

SIA                 Sustainability Impact Assessment

SMEs              small and medium-sized enterprises

SPS                 sanitary and phytosanitary

TBT                 technical barriers to trade

TDCA              Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement

TED                 turtle excluder device

TEU                Treaty on European Union

TFEU              Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

TISA               Trade in Services Agreement

TPP                 Trans-Pacific Partnership

TRIPs               Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TTIP                Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

UN                   United Nations

UNECA           United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

UNICE             Confederation of European Business

WTO                World Trade Organization