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North-South Regional Trade Agreements as Legal Regimes

A Critical Assessment of the EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement

Clair Gammage

This book offers a critical reflection of the North-South regional trade agreements (RTAs), known as the Economic Partnership Agreements, negotiated between the EU and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries. Conceiving of regions as legal regimes, Clair Gammage highlights the challenges facing developing countries when negotiating RTAs with developed countries and interrogates the assumption that these agreements will and can promote sustainable development through trade.
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Index

A Critical Assessment of the EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement

Clair Gammage

Abass, A. 153

Abuja Treaty 167, 189, 193

ACP-EU relationship see history of ACP-EU relationship

Adedeji, A. 147, 185

Afadameh-Adeyemi, A. 213

Africa Trade Network 262–3

African Associated States (AAS) 139

African Development Bank (AfDB) 215

African Growth and Opportunity Act (2000) 223

African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 190–91

African regionalisms 167, 169–71, 198–9

democracy 170–71, 172–8, 191, 198

disorder 176, 193

external constraints 178–82

‘good governance’ 182–4

modern and traditional 176

pseudo-Western façade 175

flexible legal regimes 171, 188, 193, 198

neoliberal market integration 193–5, 196

regime boosting 195–7

shadow regionalisation 197–8

fragmentation to unification 171, 184–6

New Partnership for African Development 189–93

speaking with one voice 186–9

regionalism in Southern Africa see separate entry

African Trade Policy Centre 264

African Tri-partite Agreement 196, 214

African Union 156, 175, 190, 223, 239, 263, 266

Joint Africa-EU Strategy 166, 167

market integration 193

NEPAD 189, 192, 193

agriculture 18–19, 62, 71, 137, 143, 147, 153

CARIFORUM EPA 294

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 18, 50, 163

rules of origin 242

SACU 227

SADC 216

EPA 234, 241, 242, 247–8, 254, 255

structural adjustment programmes 180

see also individual crops or products

aid see development aid

Aid for Trade (AfT) 108, 300

Carib-Export 272–4

Akokpari, J.K. 180, 192

Alavi, S.J. 53

Alemazung, J.A. 177

Alessandrini, D. 52

aluminium 228, 275

aluminium oxide (alumina) 275

Aly, A. 170

amicus curiae briefs 289

Angola 107, 108, 117, 164, 211, 213, 221, 233

collapse of communism 181–2

interim EPA 235, 258

oil 108, 116, 244

SADC EPA: contentious issues 236–8

animal welfare 127–8

anomie28, 29

anti-dumping and countervailing duties 243

Antigua and Barbuda 68, 268, 292, 293

Antigua Workers Union 277

apartheid 181, 195, 199, 204, 206, 210, 221, 229

apparel/clothing 242, 285

Aredo, D. 192

Argentina 68

Arriola, L.R. 174, 197

Aryeetey, E. 185

ASEAN 250

Asia 144

South-East 15

Asian model of regionalism 201

Associated African and Malagasy States (AAMS) 139, 140, 141

asymmetry 1, 23–4, 144, 147, 148, 155

power 3, 4, 13, 46, 258–9

Australia 49

authoritarianism 195, 223

Ayelazuno, J. 181

Ayittey, G. 181

Bach, D. 197, 204

Bagwell, K. 19

Bahamas 268, 292, 293, 299

Chamber of Commerce of 277

Baldwin, R. 17, 20

bananas 69–70, 71, 72, 73–4, 136, 143, 147–8, 275–6, 283

Bangladesh 68

Baracat, E. 71

Barak-Erez, D. 127

Barbados 268, 285–6, 293, 298

Barbarinde, O. 144, 145

Barral, V. 7, 120, 121, 122–3, 134, 154

Bartels, L. 138, 140

beef 143–4, 275

Belgium 139

Belize 268, 292

Benhabib, S. 42, 276

Bentham, J. 114

Berkshire Hathaway 281

Bernal, R. 150–51, 155, 271, 272, 274, 275, 280–81

Bertelsmann-Scott, T. 226

Bhagwati, J. 14, 17, 21, 48

big man rule or neopatrimonialism 170–78, 179, 180, 190–91, 195, 198, 202, 222

Bilal, S. 103

Blumenfeld, J. 207, 213

Blumer, H. 169

Bond, P. 191

Bösl, A. 237

Botswana 107, 177, 213, 218

diamonds 244

Frontline States (FLS) 210

SACU 203, 204–5, 206, 208, 209–10, 223–5, 227, 241

SADC EPA 233, 249, 255, 264

DFQF 245

interim EPA 164, 234, 236, 238, 240, 258

safeguards 247–9

substantially all trade 240, 241

taxes 246–7

SADCC 211

Bowen, B. 221

Bown, C.P. 69, 71

Bratton, M. 172, 175, 176

Braude, W. 137

Bräutigam, D. 174

Brazil 68

Brenton, P. 153

Bretton Woods institutions 233

IMF 114, 146, 155, 179, 217, 293

World Bank 103–4, 107, 114, 116, 146, 155, 172, 179, 181, 182–3

Broberg, M. 156, 158, 270, 272

Brown, W. 144

Brundtland Report 120–21

Bruton, H.J. 15

Buckel, S. 29, 40, 41

Budd, E. 177

Buiter, W.H. 155

Burundi 39

Busch, M. 69

Buthelezi, S. 217, 224

Canada 21

Canterbury, D. 148

capabilities approach 4–5, 115–16

capitalism 29, 33, 35, 115

Carib-Export 272–4, 297

Caribbean Trade and Private Sector Development Programme (CTPSDP) 272–4

Caribbean-EU Strategic Partnerships 159

CARIFORUM 151, 158

EPA see CARIFORUM EPA

CARIFORUM EPA 1, 4, 21, 96, 159, 268–70, 300–301

argumentation, site of 270–76

discursive space for deliberative participation 257, 266, 276–81

economic vulnerability 271

size of firms 280–81

Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) 272, 276–9, 297

five year review 43, 290–96, 300

financial deficit 300

implementation deficit 298–9

information deficit 296–8

lessons from 296

liberalisation 49, 270, 274, 280, 282, 290–91, 295

dispute settlement 288–9

environmental protection 286–8

labour standards 286–8

MFN clause 284, 286

protecting regional preference 289–90

sustainable development 286–8, 289, 296, 299, 300

trade beyond goods 275, 284–6

trade on goods 282–4

non-tariff barriers 285–6

Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) 275

Chabal, P. 170, 172, 175, 176, 179, 182, 192

Chaisse, J. 92

Cheru, F. 228

China 68, 233, 281

Chipeta, C. 225

citrus products 275

civil society (organisations) 2, 12, 25, 37, 42, 157, 182

African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 191

CARIFORUM EPA 272, 276–7, 278–9

dispute settlement 289

isolationist strategies 262

reformist strategies 262, 263

SADC 216, 218

EPA 257, 259–65, 266

mimetic challenge 257

Clapham, C. 175, 184

clientelism 174

clothing/apparel 285

rules of origin 242

Clough, M. 57, 69

coffee 143

Collier, P. 144, 243

colonialism/colonisation 137, 176–7, 185, 186, 210, 221, 229, 271

decolonisation 138, 141, 178–9, 187–8

neo- 178

see also imperialism

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 21, 189, 196, 200, 214, 224, 231, 236, 237

communism 181–2

comparative advantage 14, 112

competition law/policy 160, 255, 257, 267, 295

Confederation of European Business (UNICE) 260

constructivism 2, 12, 22–6, 154–5, 169, 173, 198, 232

consultation

Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) 272, 276–7

Cotonou Partnership Agreement 155, 156

NEPAD 192

SADC EPA

non-state actors 264, 265

continentalism 185, 187, 193, 198

Cordner, C. 112

corruption 173, 174, 179, 181, 182–3, 190, 193

Costa Rica 68

Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) 5, 7, 136, 152–4, 224, 285, 294

differentiation 107, 148

Guyana 283

human rights 39

participative deliberation/participatory space 3, 39, 154–8, 259, 265, 277

rules of origin 242

Suriname 283

sustainable development 287

WTO waiver 164, 275

Crawford, G. 147

Cremona, M. 81, 82

Cuba 268

customary international law 129–34, 135

customs unions 46, 47, 48, 50, 58, 60–61, 63–5, 66, 274

Southern African Customs Union (SACU) see separate entry

Dam, K. 48, 50

Damro, C. 6, 77

Das, D. 19, 48

Davies, R. 234, 257

Davis, C. 68

De Gucht, Karl 263–4

debt 19, 181

heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) 217

decolonisation 138, 141, 178–9, 187–8

Del Falice, C. 261, 262, 266

democracy 2, 3, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 45

ACP countries 157

Africa 170–71, 172–8, 191, 198

disorder 176, 193

external constraints 178–82

‘good governance’ 182–4

pseudo-Western façade 175

development assistance 105

EU as normative actor

embedding liberal democratic principles 94–6

Democratic Republic of Congo 139, 187, 213, 217

Denmark 141

devaluation, currency 179

development aid 78, 102–8, 137, 145, 146, 159, 178–9, 181–2

CARIFORUM EPA 271, 272–4, 277–8, 282, 283, 286, 298, 300

country ownership 155

Joint Africa-EU Strategy 166–8

Lomé framework 142, 149

SADC 108, 221–2

EPA 78, 159, 254, 260

Regional EPA Fund 254

SADCC 221

WTO DSB 69

Yaoundé framework 140–41

development integration 201, 202

SADCC 211–12

Dimopoulos, A. 77, 85

Dirar, L. 8, 202, 211

discourse theory 2–4, 13, 30, 31–7, 46, 75

CARIFORUM EPA

discursive space for deliberative participation 257, 266, 276–81

Cotonou Partnership Agreement

participative deliberation/participatory space 3, 39, 154–8, 259, 265, 277

SADC EPA

discursive space for deliberation 254, 255–66

toward interregionalism 13–14, 37–43

Disdier, A. 161

dispute settlement

CARIFORUM EPA 288–9

SACU 208–9

SADC EPA 251–2

WTO see under World Trade Organization

distributive justice 114

Doha Round 20, 35, 55, 160, 271–2, 275

Doherty, M. 162

Dominica 268, 271, 273, 292

Dominican Republic 69, 268, 270, 275, 277, 284, 292, 293, 295–6, 298, 299

domino theory 17

Donnelly, J. 11

Draper, P. 161

Dunlop, A. 144

Durkheim, E. 28–9

dynamic time path theorem 17

e-commerce 284

East African Community (EAC) 196, 214, 224

Ebegbulem, J.C. 191

Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 188

Economic Community of West Africa (CEAO) 188

Economic Community of Western African States (ECOWAS) 49, 188

economic growth 200, 212, 228, 260, 263, 265, 287, 292

Africa: 2000–2010 19

capabilities approach 116

corruption 183

cultural, social and religious normative frameworks 105

development as 112

financial crisis 181

future global 79

GATT: Article XXIV 47

import substitution 146

landlocked countries 219

Lomé framework 149, 153, 161

neopatrimonialism 177

NEPAD 190

SADC 201, 217, 220

EPA: forecast regional GDP 235

SAPs 146

structural adjustment programmes 180

sustainability and 45

Washington Consensus 194

winning globalisers 18–19

economic partnership agreements (EPAs) 1, 115, 118, 136, 137, 152, 153, 154, 155–6, 157, 158–64

CARIFORUM EPA see separate entry

commercial focus 78–9

deliberative democracy model 3, 30

EU competences 96

hegemonic legal regimes 3–4, 13–14, 37–44, 75, 78

‘human-centred development’ approach 119

interregionalism 13–14, 37–44

primary purpose 136

Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA see separate entry

transparency, lack of 25

see also hegemony

economic sociology 22–3

economies of scale 160, 281

Ecuador 69–70

education 107, 108, 186

Edwards, S. 15

Egypt 69, 187

Ekeh, P. 172

Elumelu, T. 216

energy sector: Southern Africa 227–8

Englebert, P. 177

environmental protection 5, 118, 122

CARIFORUM EPA 286–8

SADC EPA 246

Erasmus, G. 206, 209, 210

Erdmann, G. 174

Eriksen, E.O. 30, 41

Eshnor, L. 226

ethanol 234

ethnicity 174, 186

European Development Fund (EDF) 78, 102–4, 108, 140, 142, 146, 159

Agenda for Change104–8

differentiation 105–7, 108

allocation not an entitlement 274

Carib-Export 272–4

CARIFORUM EPA 282, 300

Grant and Loan Blending Facilities (GBLFs) 103–4

SADC EPA 78, 108, 254

European Free Trade Area (EFTA) 20

European Investment Bank (EIB) 103, 107, 159

European Union 18–19, 39, 46, 68, 171, 178–9, 188, 199, 221

2020 Strategy79, 104

CETA 21

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 18, 50, 163

common commercial policy (CCP) 76, 77, 79, 80–93, 94, 96, 97, 98–9, 102, 108, 282

development policy and 146

strategic materialist orientation 83, 96

common external tariff 153

competences 79, 80–93, 95–6, 98–102, 108

conferral principle 80–81

Council 82

Court of Justice of 77, 84–5, 86–90, 98–102

teleological interpretation 84

European Consensus on Development98, 101–2, 134

Europeanising regional processes in ACP 157

as global actor 76–8, 108–9

development cooperation 102–8

market power Europe 78–93

normative actor 25, 37, 93–6

parallelism 26, 77, 83–4, 89, 96

trade/development interface 97–102

Green Paper (1996) 137, 148, 149–50, 151–2, 163

history of ACP-EU relationship see separate entry

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 118

legal personality 76

market power Europe 78–93

exclusivity 80–85

implied external power 85–91

investment 91–3

shared competence 91

as normative actor 25, 37, 93–6

Parliament 81–2, 102

proportionality principle 81

single market 84, 145

subsidiarity principle 81

transition economies 20

Evans, J. 218, 219

Ewelukwa, U. 52

Farrell, M. 2, 12, 136, 147, 184

Ferrer, J.N. 103

financial

assistance see development aid

crises 92, 115, 178, 181, 184, 292

deficit 170

CARIFORUM EPA 300

Findlay, R. 17

Finnemore, M. 27

Fiorentino, R.V. 1, 20

fisheries 147

CARIFORUM EPA 294

Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) 242

SADC EPA 241, 242

flexibility in transition period 241

flexible legal regimes see African regionalisms

Flint, A. 139, 146, 159

Fombad, C.M. 175

food

grains 143

(in)security 108, 184

SADC EPA 246, 247, 248

prices 292

safety 162

foreign direct investment (FDI) 79, 83, 91–3, 96, 181, 183

France 137, 138–9, 140, 162

Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs) 290

free trade 14–15, 112, 113, 125

French Guyana 290

functionalism 185–6, 187, 198

neo- 11, 94, 171, 204

G8191

game theory 16, 18–19

Gammage, C. 277

Gantz, D. 219

Gathii, J.T. 8, 49, 171, 195, 196

GATS 91, 284

GATT 20, 35, 46, 62, 111, 124, 138, 153, 275, 287

Art I 251

Art XI:I 244

Art XX 124, 125, 126, 127, 128

Art XXIV 160, 171, 200, 202, 244, 245, 251, 256

development deficit 117

rational and formal see regional trade agreements as legal regimes

SACU 202, 203

safeguards and 248–9

substantially all trade 48–9, 60–63, 72–3, 240–41

Gavas, M. 103

Geingob, Hage G. 221, 258

gender equality 167

Generalised System of Preference (GSP) of EU 163, 164, 165, 242, 275, 294

Angola 235

Everything But Arms 163, 165, 224, 235, 242

Namibia 234

geographical indications 161, 239, 242, 255

Georgetown Agreement 141

Germany 300

Ghana 172, 180–81, 186–7, 190

Gibb, R. 143, 147, 163, 198, 201, 209, 210, 218

Gill, Henry 277

global value chains 216

globalisation 2, 18, 35, 38, 70, 110, 111, 191, 197, 202, 221, 272

Gonsalves, Ralph 278

Gonzales, A. 271

Goodison, P. 162, 163

governance 2, 5, 37, 95, 105, 118, 149, 166, 237, 266

Africa see African regionalisms

Trade for All80

government procurement 21, 160, 255, 257, 267

Gramsci, A. 29, 41

Granovetter, M. 22, 23

Greece 144

Greene, G. 285

Grenada 268, 292

Guadeloupe 290

Guyana 257, 268, 273, 278, 279, 280, 283, 292

Haarlov, J. 212

Haastrup, T. 157

Habermas, J. 27, 29, 30, 31–7, 39, 117

Hafner-Burton, E. 258

Haiti 268, 273, 275

Hansungule, M. 214

Harrison, G. 18, 170, 181

Harryvan, A. 141, 142

Hartley, T. 85

Hartzenberg, T. 201, 212, 226

Harvey, D. 113

health and safety standards 162

heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) 217

hegemony 3–4, 13–14, 37–44, 75, 78

EU 42, 78, 140, 152, 202, 250–51, 258–9, 262

gap between rhetoric and practice 197

South Africa: regional 201, 202, 205, 218, 224–9

Herbst, J. 170

Heron, T. 9, 232, 256

Hettne, B. 21, 25, 78

Hilf, M. 88

Hinkle, L. 140, 148

Hirsch, M. 22, 51

history of ACP-EU relationship 136–7

Cotonou Partnership Agreement see separate entry

economic partnership agreements see separate entry

from Yaoundé to Lomé 140–44

Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership 159, 165–8, 190

long road to reciprocity 148–52

preferential past 137–9

restructuring 144–8

withdrawal of Reg 1528/2007 164–5

Holdgaard, R. 89

Holzcheiter, A. 260

Hong Kong 15

Hönich, U. 283, 284

Hopf, T. 4, 40, 41

Horwitz, M. 45

Howse, R. 124, 127, 128

HSBC Holdings 281

Huber, J. 73

Hudec, R. 111

human rights 5, 35, 36, 38, 39, 95, 98–100, 117, 118, 149

Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) 39

development assistance 105

development, right to 119

Joint Africa-EU Strategy 166

Lomé framework 147

NEPAD 192

NGOs 260–61

SADC Tribunal 214

socio-economic 265–6

Trade for All80

Humphrey, E. 285, 295, 296–7, 298, 299, 300

Hunt, A. 115

Hurt, S. 9, 43, 141, 147, 153, 156, 157, 232, 256–7, 261

Hutton, N. 141

Hylton, G.A. 142

ICBC 281

Ikome, F.N. 185, 188

Ilbery, B. 127

imperialism 148, 151, 178, 194–5

flavour of 39

soft 78

import substitution (industrialisation) 14, 15, 146, 178, 193

India 68

Indian Ocean Council 224

individualism 28, 30

industrial development 15

regionalism in southern Africa 200, 227

SADC EPA 246

industrial products

CARIFORUM EPA 294, 295

SADC EPA 241

inequalit(y)/(ies) 35, 37, 39, 45, 46, 71, 114–15, 117

of opportunity 105

infant industry protection 15, 247

SACU 209

SADC EPA 246, 247

informal economy 174–5, 197–8

information 25

CARIFORUM states 277–8, 284, 300

deficit 272–3, 296–8

deficit 272–3, 296–8

dissemination 42, 297–8

Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) 277–8, 297

SADC EPA

non-state actors 264–5

sharing

CARIFORUM EPA Implementation Network 300

sugar trade 284

Ingram, J.S. 18

integration through law 2, 11–14, 26, 43–4

constructing regions through ideas 22–6

discourse theory of law 31–7

economic partnership agreements

toward interregionalism 37–43

political economy of regionalism 14

waves of regionalism 14–21

reclaiming rationality 26–30

intellectual property rights 79, 82, 83, 88, 95–6, 267, 294

Inter-American Development Bank

Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) 277

intergenerational equity 120, 131

international aid see development aid

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 111, 118, 129–34, 135

international financial institutions 40, 157

IMF 114, 146, 155, 179, 217, 293

World Bank see separate entry

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 114, 146, 155, 179, 217, 293

interregionalism 13–14, 37–43

intragenerational equity 120, 131

investment policy 160, 267

Ireland 141

Ishyrion, Peter 278, 279

Italy 139

Jagdeo, Bharrat 278, 279

Jamaica 150, 268, 273, 281, 292, 293

Jara, A. 52

Jensen, M.F. 160

Jessop, D. 279

joint and several liability 243

Jones, K. 23, 62

Joseph, R. 172

Julian, M. 234, 239, 242, 254

justice 30, 35, 37, 42, 114

Kagaruki, E. 192

Kant, I. 33

Keck, M. 261

Kelsall, T. 182

Keohane, R.O. 113

Khadiagala, G.M. 187

Khama, Seretse 224

Killick, T. 179

Konadu-Agyemang, K. 180

Konstadinides, T. 90

Korea 15, 95, 96, 134

Koutrakos, P. 80, 84, 85, 86, 91, 92, 95, 97

Krueger, A. 15, 52

Kwarteng, C. 145, 157, 263

La Chimia, A. 178

labelling 162

labour markets

Southern Africa 227

labour standards 5

CARIFORUM EPA 286–8

Lagos Plan of Action (LPA) 188, 189, 193

landlocked least developed countries (LLDCs) 152

Landsberg, C. 189

Lang, A. 23, 113

Langenhove, L. van 197

Latin America 68, 72, 74, 144, 276, 283, 294

Andean Pact 21

least developed countries (LDCs) 45, 67, 68, 110, 275

CARIFORUM EPA 275, 282, 283

Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) 148

Everything But Arms 163, 224, 235

landlocked (LLDCs) 152

southern Africa 219, 224

SADC EPA 235, 237, 250

UN classification 233–4

Lee, M.C. 202, 212, 218

legal formalism 5, 44, 45–6, 66, 70, 72, 75, 117–18

South Africa 206

Lesotho 107, 190, 213, 218

Common Monetary Area (CMA) 226

Frontline States (FLS) 210

landlocked 219

profile 223

SACU 203, 204–5, 206, 208, 209–10, 223–7

SADC EPA 204–5, 233, 249, 255, 264

DFQF 245

interim EPA 164, 234, 236, 238, 240, 258

safeguards 247–9

substantially all trade 240, 241

taxes 246–7

SADCC 211

liberation movements 206, 207

Liberia 172, 187

Libreville Declaration (1997) 150, 151

Lomé Conventions 7, 38, 136, 137, 142–4, 151, 161, 271, 283

commodity trading regime 143

contractuality 142, 149

DFQF 142–3, 147

donor relationship 147

financial aid 142, 221

good governance 146, 147

human rights 147

(neo)liberal paradigm 145

non-discrimination 72–3

non-reciprocal preferential access to EU market 72, 73, 136, 142, 143, 149, 153

objectives 146–7

regular meetings 155

rules of origin 242

STABEX/SYSMIN programmes 144, 146

Lowe, V. 123, 131, 135

Luiz, J. 183

Lumsdaine, D.H. 179

McCarthy, C. 188, 204, 208, 225, 226

McCloskey, M. 120, 135

McQueen, M. 153

Madagascar 139, 187, 213

Malawi 211, 213

Mallet, Robert 218

Malmström, C. 94

Mambara, J.L. 265

Mandela, Nelson 207

Manger, M. 256

Manners, I. 6, 77, 94, 96

Manning, P. 169

Marceau, G. 56

margin of appreciation 122, 287–8

market fundamentalism 112–13, 115

Martinique 290

Marxist dependency theory, neo- 115

Mashayekhi, M. 54

Matambalya, F. 143, 160

Mathis, J. 6, 48, 49, 63, 65

Matthews, D. 142

Mauritius 190, 213

Mbeki, Thabo 186, 189, 228

media 25, 36–7, 42, 157–8

CARIFORUM EPA 272

MERCOSUR 250

Meyn, M. 209, 210, 227, 259

micro-regionalism 227–8

Mill, J.S. 114

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 98, 104

Milner, C. 159

mimetic challenge 9, 43, 199, 232, 257

Minta, I. 146

Mkandawire, T. 173

Mold, A. 138

monocultural production 71, 144, 153

Montana, I. 145

Moravcsik, A. 112

Mosoti, V. 61–2, 69

most favoured nation (MFN) 19, 47, 51, 61, 73, 158, 163, 165, 249

CARIFORUM EPA 284, 286

Generalised System of Preference (GSP) 275

SADC EPA 239, 248, 249–51

Moyo, D. 18

Mozambique 190, 213, 221

collapse of communism 181–2

heavily indebted poor country 217

hydroelectric dam 228

liberation movements 206

SADC EPA 233, 242, 249, 255

DFQF 245

interim EPA 164, 234, 238, 240–41, 258

safeguards 247–9

substantially all trade 240–41

taxes 246–7

SADCC 211

Mugabe, Robert 192

Mulaudzi, C. 211, 223, 228

multinational corporations 70–71, 75, 113

Munck, R. 113

munitions 245, 294

Murray, R. 192

Museveni, Yoweri 186

mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) 161

CARIFORUM states 285–6

SADC EPA 251, 254

NAFTA 250

Namibia 107, 108, 213, 218, 221, 225

Regional Integration Facilitation Forum (RIFF) 224

SACU 203, 206, 208, 209–10, 223–5, 227

SADC EPA 233, 249, 255, 257

contentious issues 236–8, 239–40, 242

delaying tactics 257

DFQF 245, 258

interim EPA 164, 234–5, 258

non-state actors 263–4

safeguards 247–9

taxes 246–7

SADCC 211

nation-states 2, 11, 12, 32, 35–6, 37, 113, 188, 195

nationalism 138, 222

natural resources 183, 199, 217, 227, 228, 244

Naumann, E. 51, 242, 243

Ndulu, B. 219

neo-Marxist dependency theory 115

neofunctionalism 11, 94, 171, 204

neoliberalism 2, 4, 5, 11, 145, 147, 181, 182, 184, 185, 199, 202, 229, 232, 256

African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 190–91

alternative visions of development 117

capitalism 115

embedded into concept of development 160

Europeanising regional processes in ACP 157

Ghana 180, 186

global institutions 114

Green Paper (1996) 148

Habermas 35

interregionalism 38

market integration 193–5, 196

market power Europe 78

meaning 113

non-state actors 156

normative actor, EU as 77

politico-ethical framework 42

SADC 216, 218–19, 222

social and development programmes 163

Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) 194

neopatrimonialism 170–78, 179, 180, 190–91, 195, 198, 202, 222

nepotism 174

Netherlands 137

Overseas Territories 290

Suriname 294

New International Economic Order 204–5

New Partnership For Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 189–94, 199, 207

new regionalism 21, 24, 25, 213, 222, 228

Nigeria 187, 190, 228

Nkrumah, Kwame 186, 187

non-governmental organisations (NGOs) 37, 157

human rights 260–61

networks 265

see also civil society (organisations)

non-state actors 2, 12, 13, 24–5, 38, 157–8, 160, 169, 194

Africa-EU Joint Strategic Partnership 167

African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 191

corruption 183

Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) 155, 156–7

interpretation of Art XXIV GATT 70

regionalism in southern Africa 201, 212

SADC 216, 218

EPA 254, 257, 259–65, 266

see also civil society (organisations)

non-tariff barriers 9, 161–2, 219

CARIFORUM EPA 285–6

SADC EPA 235, 236, 241–3, 251

Nordic countries 221

norms 28, 30

discourse principle 34

legal 27–8, 33

legitimate 34

North, D.C. 113

Nozick, R. 113

Nussbaum, M. 115

Ochieng, C. 52, 241

Oelbaum, J. 180

oil prices 143, 291–2

Oosthuizen, G. 211, 212, 226

open regionalism 218

Organisation of African Unity (OAU) 187, 189

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) 270, 296

Osborne, M. 16

Østergaard, T. 202

overlapping regionalism 21, 196, 222, 223–4, 236, 267

Oxfam 262

Oyejide, A. 52

Pan-African Programme 106, 168, 254

pan-Africanism 185–6, 187, 189

Parsons, C. 232

patrimonialism 173, 177

neo- 170–78, 179, 180, 190–91, 195, 198, 202, 222

patronage 170, 174, 183, 197

PetroCaribe 292

Philippines 275

Pitcher, A. 173, 174, 177

Portugal 137, 144

poverty 182, 189, 199, 200

Angola 116

Dominican Republic 295–6

eradication of 97, 101, 104, 110, 147, 153, 154

EPA purpose 5, 136

feminisation of 167

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) 155, 182

SADC 215

EPA 244

trap 194

Prévost, D. 161

Prisoner’s Dilemma 16, 19

privatisation 180, 183, 194

protectionism 18, 19, 23, 146, 193, 243

public sector 179–80, 194

public-private partnerships 71, 182

Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) 71, 194, 227–8

Ramdoo, I. 49

rationalist theories 2, 11–12, 14–21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 43, 117, 169, 188

rationality 11, 31, 34, 36–7, 41, 43, 75, 152, 158, 173

reclaiming 26–30

Ravenhill, J. 112, 201

Rawlings, Jerry 180–81

Rawls, J. 30, 114

Reagan, Ronald 178, 179

recession 292–3

reciprocity 1, 19–20, 23, 32, 110–11, 148–52

red meat 235–6

beef 143–4, 275

karoo lamb 255

redistributive justice 30, 35

regime boosting regionalism 171, 193, 195–7, 221–4

regional trade agreements as legal regimes 45–6

Art XXIV as formal legal norm 58–66

creating regions: legal bases 47–52

differentiation: legal principle 66–7

enabling clause: South-South cooperation 52–4

institutional framework

for assessing compatibility 54–7

institutionalising participation

dispute settlement body 67–72

North-South cooperation

reconstructing through North-South RTAs 72–5

special and differential treatment (SDT) 52, 73, 74–5

regionalism in Southern Africa 199, 200–202, 229–30

energy sector 227–8

from SADCC to SADC 210–20

hegemon: South Africa 201, 202, 224–9

landlocked countries 219

overlapping 196, 223–4

as ‘regime boosting’ 221–4

Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 203–4

governance through regionalism and apartheid 204–7

towards democracy 207–10

Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) 71, 194, 227–8

see also Southern African Customs Union; Southern African Development Community

regionalisms, African see African regionalisms

Reisen, M. van 140

religion 29, 30, 31

rendezvous clauses 267

rent-seeking 170, 173, 197, 244

Republic of Congo 139, 187

Ricardo, David 112

rice 164, 275, 283, 294

brown 275

Riddell, J.B. 174, 179

Rio Declaration 120, 121, 134

Rodney, W. 137

Rosendorff, B.P. 57

Ruggie, J. 124

rule of law 115, 182, 266

rules of origin 21, 50–52, 161, 196

CARIFORUM EPA 285, 294

southern Africa 201

SADC EPA 239, 241–3, 255, 267

rum 143

Rutazibwa, O. 157

Saad-Filho, A. 113

Sachs, J.D. 19

St Kitts and St Nevis 268, 292

St Lucia 268, 271, 292, 293

St Vincent and the Grenadines 268, 271, 278, 292, 298

sanctions 192, 206–7

Sands, P. 122, 135

sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures 60, 161, 162

CARIFORUM EPA 285

SADC EPA 241–2, 251, 254

Saurombe, A. 214, 225, 227

Schuman, R. 138

Sen, A. 4–5, 115–16

Senegal 139, 172, 187, 192–3

Senona, J. 162

services 21, 160, 161

CARIFORUM EPA 275, 284–5

EU competences 83, 88, 95

unanimity 82

Seychelles 213

Sidaway, J.D. 112, 203

Sierra Leone 172, 187, 190

Simon, H.A. 11

Singapore 15

Sissoki, M. 140

Skogstad, G. 18

Slocum-Bradley, N. 146, 147

small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) 79

Smith, Adam 112

Snyman, A.F. 186

social contract 28

sociology

economic 22–3

of law 28–9

Söderbaum, F. 2, 12, 24, 95, 154, 170, 193, 194, 195, 197, 222, 223, 228

Soko, M. 184, 214

South Africa 106, 107, 190, 194–5, 199, 216, 218, 223

corporate expansion 194–5

infrastructure 219–20

natural resources 244

regional hegemon 201, 202, 205, 218, 224–9

SACU 201, 203–4, 205, 209–10, 224, 229–30, 234, 249, 264

common external tariff 206

Common Revenue Pool (CRP) 206, 210, 225–7

intergovernmental institutional structure 208

sanctions 206–7

SADC EPA 233–4, 254, 257

contentious issues 236–8, 240, 241

geographical indications 255

interim EPA 164, 235, 258

strategic objectives 234

substantially all trade 240, 241

trade in goods 245, 255

SADCC 211, 213

self-declared as developing country 233–4

socio-economic rights 265–6

TDCA 208, 233, 234, 235, 240, 241, 243, 245, 255, 258, 266, 267

overlapping regionalism 223–4

WTO dispute settlement 69

Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 200, 201, 202, 203–4, 229–30, 231

Common Revenue Pool (CRP) 206, 210, 225–7

decision-making by consensus 209

fiscal harmonisation 226

governance through regionalism and apartheid 204–7

infrastructure 219–20

institutional deficit 209

institutional framework 208–9

overlapping membership 223–4

SADC EPA 208, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 245, 266

MFN clause 249

SADCC 210–11

towards democracy 207–10

Southern African Development Community (SADC) 189, 200, 201–2, 226, 228, 229

diversification 216, 228

EPA see Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA

financial assistance 108, 215, 221

from SADCC to 210–20

industrialisation 215, 216

infrastructure 217, 228

Lomé framework: beef and sugar 143

objectives 197, 214–15, 220, 222, 223

organisational structure 213–14, 220, 222–3

overlapping regionalism 196, 223–4

‘regime boosting’ 196, 221–4

Roadmap 215–16

trade in goods 216–17

trade in services 216–17

Tribunal 214, 223

Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA 1, 4, 13, 43, 49, 158, 159, 165, 202, 208, 231–3, 267

2013–2015 total imports and exports 245

aims 244, 250–51

constructing new interregional space 233–6

contentious issues 236–40

defining ‘substantially all trade’ 239, 240–41

definition of the parties 239, 243

export taxes 239, 243–4, 246–7

non-tariff barriers to trade 241–3

discursive space for deliberation 255–66

growth in regional GDP, forecast 235

hegemonic position of EU 202, 250–51, 258–9, 262

interim EPA 164, 234–5, 236–7, 238, 239, 255, 258

monitoring 245–6

non-tariff barriers 235, 236, 241–3, 251

time limits 248, 252

toward new legal regime 244–6

development cooperation 254–5, 260

dispute settlement 251–2

MFN clause 239, 249–51

protecting state industries and economies 246–9

sustainable development 252–4

technical barriers to trade 251

vulnerable economies 238

Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) 189, 201–2, 221

from SADCC to SADC 210–14, 217, 220

organisational structure 211, 213

sectoral cooperation 211–12

sovereignty and regionalism 188, 195, 222

Soviet Union 20, 145, 181

Spaak, T. 27

Spain 137, 144

Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) 71, 194, 227–8

standard of living 179, 180, 207, 227

Stevens, C. 159, 241

Storey, A. 157, 160

structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) 146, 155, 178, 179–82, 192

four elements 179

structural dependence 262, 271

subsidies 18, 18–19, 50, 83, 179, 180, 247

sugar 137, 143, 164

CARIFORUM EPA 275, 283–4, 294

SADC EPA 234, 235–6, 242

Suriname 268, 273, 283, 292, 294, 298

sustainable development 1, 5, 45, 104, 110–11, 134–5, 154, 166, 199

CARIFORUM EPA 286–8, 289, 296, 299, 300

development through law 112–18

embedding in international trade 123–9

justiciable legal norm 118–23

NEPAD 190, 192

principle of customary international law 121, 129–34

SACU 207

SADC EPA 231, 244, 247, 252–4, 259, 262, 263

Trade for All80

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 98, 103

Swaziland 107, 213, 219

COMESA 200, 224

Common Monetary Area (CMA) 226

Frontline States (FLS) 210

profile 223

Regional Integration Facilitation Forum (RIFF) 224

SACU 203, 204–5, 206, 208, 209–10, 223–7, 264

SADC EPA 233, 249, 255

DFQF 245

interim EPA 164, 234, 236, 238, 240, 258

safeguards 247–9

substantially all trade 240, 241

taxes 246–7

SADCC 211

South Africa 218, 225

Taiwan 15

Tanzania 190, 211, 213, 217, 228

Tar, U. 182

taxation

CARIFORUM EPA 272, 274, 283

SADC EPA

customs duties 246–7, 249

export taxes 46, 239, 243–4, 246–7

Southern Africa

SACU 225, 226

SADC EPA see above

Taylor, I. 192, 197, 222, 223, 229

tea 143, 255

technical barriers to trade (TBT) 161, 162, 163

SADC EPA 241–2, 251, 254

technical harmonisation 162

Telò, M. 77

Teunissen, J.J. 194

textiles 137, 242, 285

Thailand 275

Thatcher, Margaret 115, 178, 179

Theobold, R. 177

Third World Network 262

Thomas, M. 258

Thompson, C.B. 25, 181, 212

Tivera, D. 228

tourism 292

Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA) 223, 233, 235, 241, 243, 245, 258, 266

rules of origin 255, 267

SACU 208

SADC EPA improved terms 234, 235, 267

substantially all trade 240

Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) 21

traditional knowledge 267

Traidcraft 262

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) 21

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 21

transition economies 20

transparency 25, 55

African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 191

Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) 272

guarantees 116

SACU 208

SADC EPA 251, 265

transport 183

costs 219, 220

Maputo Development Corridor (MDC) 227, 228

Trebilcock, M. 114

Trinidad and Tobago 69, 155, 268, 292, 293

TRIPS obligations 88

Tsie, B. 184

Tsolo, M. 227

Udombana, N. 146

Ukpe, A.I. 162

unfreedom(s) 116, 117, 179, 184

Unger, R.M. 117

United Kingdom 225

colonialism 137, 141, 271

DFID 183

financial assistance 178–9, 300

Overseas Territories 290

United Nations 234

Declaration on the Right to Development 118–20

Economic Commission for Africa 188, 219

United States 18, 68, 70, 72, 91, 141, 178, 179, 199, 221, 233

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 119

Uruguay Round 20

utilitarianism 28

Vickers, B. 231

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 59, 289

Viner, J. 51

Wade, Abdoulaye 192–3

Walker, A. 238, 242

Washington Consensus 113, 194

Weber, M. 26, 27, 29, 31, 173, 174

Welch, C. 260, 266

Wendt, A. 169

Williamson, J. 113

wine 69–70, 234

Woolfrey, S. 163, 235, 236, 237

World Bank 103–4, 107, 114, 116, 146, 155, 172, 179, 181, 182–3

definition of good governance 182

World Trade Organization (WTO) 17, 23, 35, 44, 114, 223

dispute settlement 24, 53–4, 56–74, 75, 251, 252, 253, 288

Africa’s absence 69, 71–2

bananas 69–70, 71, 72, 73–4, 136, 147–8, 283

sustainable development 111, 118, 123–9, 134, 135

treaty interpretation 59

Doha Round 20, 35, 55, 160, 271–2, 275

EU competences 87–8

regionalism 110

SADC EPA 231–2

self-declaration of country status 114, 233–4

waivers 73, 164, 275–6, 294

see also GATS; GATT

Yaoundé Conventions 7, 136, 137, 139, 140–42, 152

Young, A. 160

Yugoslav Republic, Former (FYR) 20

Zambia 190, 211, 213, 217, 228

Zimbabwe 192, 206, 211, 213, 223, 228