Carbon Pricing
Show Less

Carbon Pricing

Design, Experiences and Issues

Edited by Larry Kreiser, Mikael S. Andersen, Birgitte E. Olsen, Stefan Speck, Janet E. Milne and Hope Ashiabor

Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, and how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices, which has negative implications for the future of our environment. In light of these negative developments, it is important to understand the benefits of environmental sustainability through well-documented research. This discerning book considers the design of carbon taxes and examines the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful policies used by some countries can be implemented in other jurisdictions with minimum new research and experimentation.
Show Summary Details
You do not have access to this content

Chapter 10: Urban road pricing: the experience of Milan

Edoardo Croci and Aldo Ravazzi Douvan


Negative externalities generated by mobility have been studied by economists since the nineteenth century (Newbery, 1988, 1990). Main categories of externalities concern environmental impacts, accidents and congestion. Environmental impacts refer to local air quality degradation due to traffic emissions (causing health consequences, life expectancy reduction, real estate values reduction and damages to cultural heritage), noise (causing health consequences, stress, real estate values reduction), contribution to global climate change through CO2 emissions. Accidents involve material damages to vehicles, injuries and deaths to people. Congestion is responsible for time loss, economic productivity decrease, extra fuel consumption and frustration. Externalities can vary with respect to three main aspects: place where they are generated, time, type of vehicle (CE Delft, 2011). Mobility in dense, highly populated and attractive areas, like city centres or main commuting roads, generates higher levels of congestion and other externalities than in scarcely populated and isolated areas. Mobility in peak hours generates higher levels of congestion and other externalities than in daytime off-peak and night hours. Private motorized traffic generates higher per capita emissions than public transportation and non-motorized modes. Trucks give a higher contribution to congestion than cars and motorbikes.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information

or login to access all content.