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The Rise of the Hybrid Domain

Collaborative Governance for Social Innovation

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

By conceptualizing the rise of the hybrid domain as an emerging institutional form that overlaps public and private interests, this book explores how corporations, states, and civil society organizations develop common agendas, despite the differences in their primary objectives. Using evidence from India, it examines various cases of social innovation in education, energy, health, and finance, which offer solutions for some of the most pressing social challenges of the twenty-first century.
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Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

List of tables


List of abbreviations

1    Introduction

1.1    The hybrid domain

1.2    Social innovation in India

1.3    Methodology

1.3.1    Questionnaire survey of R&D activities of multinational enterprises

1.3.2    Semi-structured interviews with social innovation stakeholders

1.4    Book organization

1.5    Caveats

2    Rescaling collective action for governance in the twenty-first century

2.1    Governing global public goods

2.1.1    State–market dichotomy

2.1.2    Problems with public goods

2.1.3    From local to global commons: global merit goods

2.2    Polycentric and network forms of governance

2.2.1    Polycentric governance

2.2.2    Network forms of governance

2.2.3    Heterarchies

2.2.4    Institutional “bricolage”

2.3    Conclusion

3    The hybrid domain: bridging the state–market divide

3.1    The rise of the hybrid domain

3.2    Domain and scalar flexibility

3.3    Actors in the hybrid domain

3.3.1    Corporations: from shareholder to stakeholder governance

3.3.2    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives

3.3.3    NGOs in transition

3.3.4    Social enterprises

3.3.5    Transnational social entrepreneurs (TSEs)

3.3.6    From traditional to venture philanthropy

3.3.7    The rise of impact investment

3.4    Conclusion

4    Social innovation in global contexts

4.1    Social innovation

4.1.1    Defining social innovation

4.1.2    Context in social innovation

4.1.3    Proximity in social innovation

4.1.4    Technology in social innovation

4.1.5    Sustainability in social innovation

4.2    Collaborative governance for social innovation

4.2.1    Corporations   

4.2.2    Users and consumers

4.2.3    Incentivizing social innovation

4.2.4    The state in social innovation

4.3    Conclusion

5    Social innovation in India

5.1    Failure of the state to provide public goods

5.1.1    The Nehruvian ideal of scientific and technological self-sufficiency

5.1.2    The Gandhian ideal of decentralized self-reliance

5.1.3    Inclusive development

5.2    Failure of the market to provide public goods: the myth of the BOP

5.2.1    The myth of profitability

5.2.2    Opportunities and challenges

5.2.3    From BOP to “emerging market” consumers

5.3    Conclusion

6    Designing solutions for “wicked problems”

6.1    Designing solutions

6.1.1    De-featuring and frugal innovation

6.1.2    Bottom-up design

6.1.3    Design for constraints

6.1.4    Cross-sectoral solutions

6.2    India as a laboratory for social innovation

6.2.1    Learning for social impacts: contexts and proximity

6.2.2    South–South knowledge transfer and reverse innovation

6.3    Conclusion

7    Case studies from India

7.1    Innovating on healthcare delivery and medical diagnostics

7.1.1    Rural healthcare franchising with local social networks

7.1.2    From thermoplastics to silk fabric chips for immunoassays

7.1.3    Dry reagents for resource-constrained supply chains

7.2    Resolving information asymmetries for small-scale farmers

7.2.1    Video-based content creation and distribution

7.2.2    Text messaging service for crop prices

7.2.3    Building farmers’ capacities to reach markets

7.3    Promoting inclusive development for rural populations

7.3.1    Voice-enabled mobile phone platform for tribal communities

7.3.2    ICT employment creation and training in rural areas

7.3.3    “Bank-less” banking for rural migrants

7.4    Sustaining livelihoods in the informal sector

7.4.1    Training and skill certification for construction workers

7.4.2    An employment portal for informal work

7.4.3    Enhancing the cash flows and creditworthiness of rural informal retailers

7.5    Introducing renewable energy

7.5.1    Solar systems as a catalyst for social change

7.5.2    Micro-franchises for renewable energy

7.6    What the cases tell us

8    Domain flexibility

8.1    From CSR to shared value creation

8.1.1    The limits of goodwill

8.1.2    Shared value creation: opportunities and challenges

8.1.3    The socially sustainable business model (SSBM)

8.2    Learning through collaborating

8.2.1    Varieties of collaborative arrangements

8.2.2    Collaborating with the state

8.2.3    Challenges in collaboration

8.3    The rise of hybrid organizations

8.3.1    Transitions from NGOs to social enterprises

8.3.2    NGOs established by social enterprises

8.3.3    The Robin Hood model

8.3.4    Corporations established by NGOs

8.3.5    Joint NGO–corporate set-up and collaborative polygon

8.4    Conclusion

9    Scalar flexibility

9.1    Globalizing social enterprises

9.2    The role of universities in the Global North

9.3    Looking for impacts, practice-oriented research

9.4    Accessing transnational financing

9.5    Conclusion

10    Conclusions