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The Rise of the Hybrid Domain

Collaborative Governance for Social Innovation

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

By conceptualizing the rise of the hybrid domain as an emerging institutional form that overlaps public and private interests, this book explores how corporations, states, and civil society organizations develop common agendas, despite the differences in their primary objectives. Using evidence from India, it examines various cases of social innovation in education, energy, health, and finance, which offer solutions for some of the most pressing social challenges of the twenty-first century.
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Chapter 5: Social innovation in India

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy


In this chapter, we provide the context for social innovation we observed in India. Among the BRICs, not only is India the poorest country in relative terms (per capita Gross National Income) but also in an absolute sense (people living below USD 3.10 a day) (Table 5.1). Yet, the Global Innovation Report 2015 also classifies India (along with China) as an outperformer, relative to other countries with similar levels of development in innovation inputs and outputs.

To place in historical perspective why India lags the BRICS on many indicators, and to also understand why it is considered an innovation outperformer, the following section will provide a brief overview of economic development policies in India. It will then explain how the policies have created opportunities and spaces for social innovation in the hybrid domain.

Table 5.1     Macro-economic indicators: BRICS countries






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