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The Rise of the Hybrid Domain

Collaborative Governance for Social Innovation

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

By conceptualizing the rise of the hybrid domain as an emerging institutional form that overlaps public and private interests, this book explores how corporations, states, and civil society organizations develop common agendas, despite the differences in their primary objectives. Using evidence from India, it examines various cases of social innovation in education, energy, health, and finance, which offer solutions for some of the most pressing social challenges of the twenty-first century.
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Chapter 9: Scalar flexibility

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

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of the hybrid domain, and demonstrate how stakeholders for social innovation cross scalar boundaries in the hybrid domain. Scalar flexibility refers to the way stakeholders combine local solutions with global actions, and bridge scales by marrying territorially based knowledge and resources with transnational access to technology and financing for social innovation. In this section, we discuss the transnational features of social enterprises in India, and the underlying motivations behind TSE, before concluding with the financing of transnational ventures.

India has drawn globally-minded and globally-mobile entrepreneurs in general, but increasingly it is attracting those who seek social impacts that go beyond economic gains. TSEs are part of the hybrid domain in contemporary India in sectors where social and economic values intersect, such as health, renewable energy, and education. They are emerging as important stakeholders in social innovation in the Global South. With their capacity to identify transnational social opportunities, TSEs are seeking to scale up and transnationalize their operational and organizational capacities.

Various transnational features are prominent in social entrepreneurship in India. The overwhelming majority (87 percent) of social entrepreneurs we interviewed fell into one of the following three groups with transnational ties.1 Nearly three-tenths of the social entrepreneurs we interviewed belonged to a growing group of non-Indians from the Global North relocating to India seeking social entrepreneurship opportunities. Most had few connections to India prior to arrival. Some had worked in the Indian subsidiaries of foreign MNEs for a few years before launching their enterprise, while...

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