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The Rise of the Hybrid Domain

Collaborative Governance for Social Innovation

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

By conceptualizing the rise of the hybrid domain as an emerging institutional form that overlaps public and private interests, this book explores how corporations, states, and civil society organizations develop common agendas, despite the differences in their primary objectives. Using evidence from India, it examines various cases of social innovation in education, energy, health, and finance, which offer solutions for some of the most pressing social challenges of the twenty-first century.
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Index

Yuko Aoyama and Balaji Parthasarathy

Aavishkaar (Venture Management) 50–51

Abraaj Capital 50–51

academic institutions, role of 13, 178, 182

accountability

financial 33, 47–8, 164

social 34, 164, 189

action

collective 1, 11, 15, 21–3, 28, 32–3, 41, 81, 191

rational 66

irrational 66

activist 42, 160

activist-entrepreneur identity 42

actors see also stakeholder

hierarchical 29

rational 19–20, 25

Acumen Fund 50

advocacy 12–13, 33, 39, 41, 47, 165

affordability 57, 61, 91, 94, 112, 135

affordable medical diagnostic tools 12, 115–17

Afghanistan 70, 109, 118, 123

Africa 15–16, 48, 70, 78, 106–10, 123, 179

Aga Khan Foundation 48

agency, distributed 26

agricultural practices 118–19

Agricultural Product Market Committee (India) 120

air pollution 19, 133

altruism 20

amplification 105–6

Andhra Pradesh 98, 120–21

appropriate technology 101

Ashoka Foundation 42

Assam 121

austerity 11, 42, 53

autonomy

distributed 23

from state action 41

local 23

Azim Premji Foundation 48

Bangalore 10, 14, 100, 103–4, 106, 114, 119–21, 136, 170, 181

Bangladesh 40, 42, 109

“bank-less” banking 125–7

behavioral economics 66

benefit corporation 30, 36see also enterprise

Belgium 41

Bharti Foundation 48

Big Society Capital 50

Bihar 105, 113–14, 126, 130

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 47–8, 51, 114, 119, 123, 126, 137, 183

B-Corps 36–7

Bhutan 109

Big Bang Philanthropy 47see also philanthropy; venture philanthropy

blurring of boundaries 12, 17, 29, 33, 52, 138

BOP (base/bottom-of-the-pyramid) market 8, 12, 62–3, 65, 82–8, 90–91, 104, 135, 144–45

myth of profitability 84–7

niche segments 85

bottom-line 8, 84, 179

double 36

triple 3, 39

bottom-up 12, 28, 93–6, 106, 109, 111, 189–90see also design

Boston 50, 183

BPO (business process outsourcing) centers 5, 124

BRAC (Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee) 40, 85

brand 37, 83, 88, 111, 114, 141

bricolage/bricoleur 11, 26–7, 185–7

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) 26, 69–71, 112–13, 125

Brown University 44

Buffet, Warren 45–7

business model

diverse 63

ethical 143

global offshore delivery 74

innovation 57

micro-delivery 55, 60

micro-franchising 12, 54–5, 135–6

Robin Hood 50, 169–73

socially sustainable 134, 139, 142–4, 165

transnational access to 44

California 102

Cambridge University 44, 177

Cameroon 109

Canada 36, 45

capabilities 77, 91, 131, 143

capacity building 1, 134, 139

capitalism 31, 35, 51, 188–9

creative 65

global 1, 25

inclusive 65–6

stakeholder-driven 2

see also philanthrocapitalism

case studies 9, 12, 68, 112, 136–7

catalyst 42–3, 100, 133–4, 171

cell phone see mobile phone

certification 127–8

charity 37, 39, 48, 143, 165, 171

limits of 38, 49, 84, 143, 184

Chennai 10, 124

China 3, 59, 62, 69, 117–18, 136, 154

CICs (Community Interest Companies) 36

civil society 3, 16, 23, 28, 31, 91, 187

civil society organization 2, 4, 8, 16, 40, 55–6, 59, 168, 188see also NGO; non-profit sector

closed system 31–2, 126–27

cloud (computing) 97, 99, 131, 135

club goods 19

collaboration 1, 5, 8, 13, 20, 24, 33, 35, 52, 56–7, 59, 68, 79, 81, 98, 111, 114, 118, 121, 130, 144–51, 153, 170, 188–90

among philanthropists 45

challenges in 156–63

cross-domain 12, 91, 137, 156, 158–9, 171

cross-sectoral 29–30

multi-scalar 31

collaborative polygon 172

collective action see action, collective

bargaining 34

commons

closed 41

creative 118

global 20, 13

open 41

regional economic 20

“tragedy of the” 66

common property resources 11, 15, 23, 24

community see also user; participatory

beneficiaries 41

-driven innovation 120

tribal 31, 122–3, 141

underserved 134, 180

communities of practice 56

competition 20, 54, 95, 111, 190

complementarity 17, 51, 169

compliance 34

configural approaches 23

constraints

bandwidth 110

design for see design

infrastructural 93, 99

regulatory 51

resource 57, 110

territorial 21

construction workers 105, 127–9

consumers 35, 39, 56, 59–61, 63–5, 95, 104, 110see also user

BOP 83–4

emerging market 89, 91, 102

poor 8, 58

consumption 20, 32, 64, 75, 86, 90, 110

energy 132

non-rival 21

of common property 23

contexts 96, 101–7, 169, 186–7

emerging market 89, 144

geographical 57

institutional 55, 63, 68

contextual intelligence 8, 57, 63

conventions 24, 31

cooperatives 31, 40–41, 77, 134, 145

co-production 23

corporate citizenship 13, 34–5, 154

corporate scandals 2

corporation 2–4, 16, 20, 24, 29–30, 33–40, 56–9, 61–3, 65, 81, 85–92, 111–12, 118, 130, 139–42, 159, 164, 170, 189see also enterprise; CSR

cost arbitrage 5, 6, 12, 95, 101–2

creative capitalism see capitalism

creditworthiness 131, 132

crop prices 119–20

cross-cultural exchanges 26, 175–6

cross-domain 12, 30–33, 47, 91, 136–7, 156, 159, 171see also collaboration

CSR (corporate social responsibility) 3, 8, 29, 33, 37–9, 56, 67, 81–2, 105, 121, 140–43, 145, 147–9, 156, 172, 188

consulting 170

limits of 138–40

reform of 142

strategic 141

DAC (Development Assistance Committee) 68

de-featuring 12, 57, 93–4, 101

Delhi 10, 44, 115, 126

Dell Foundation 51

deregulation 18

design 29, 4354–5, 57, 59, 92–100, 103, 105–6, 119, 131–2, 177

bottom-up 12, 93–6, 106–7, 109, 111

engineering 8, 12, 56, 177

evidenced-based 17

for constraints 12, 93–4, 96–101, 111

institutional 3, 21, 53

pro-poor 3–4, 86

de-territorialized beneficiaries 31

development

inclusive 70, 80–81, 91, 112

participatory 65–6

rural 48, 112

disaster relief 48

disruptive innovation see innovation

diverse economy 51–2, 17–18

division of labor 2–4, 18, 22, 31, 60, 148–9, 156, 172, 188

domain flexibility see flexibility

Dominican Republic 133

“double movement” 28, 189–90

donors 48, 79, 114, 119, 170

Drucker, Peter 53

Eastern Europe 107

East Timor 109, 121

eco-innovation see innovation

economic crisis 2, 42

ecosystem 33, 100, 128, 130, 132, 134, 151, 167

education 1, 19, 40, 43, 48, 55, 66–7, 70–71, 81, 86, 91–2, 122–4, 129, 134, 154–5, 162, 167, 172, 174

distance 148

online 145

remote 141

universal 80

see also SSA

efficiency 16, 18, 19, 45, 54, 75, 157, 166, 170

egalitarianism 30

e-learning 128

embeddedness 17, 43–4

emerging market, 4, 57, 63, 88–97, 102, 105, 109, 117, 119–20, 144

employability 128–9

employment portal 129–30

empowerment 8, 11, 53, 66, 81, 145

energy 29, 43, 54, 60, 100, 103, 107–8, 112, 139, 141, 152, 154, 171, 181

renewable 132–6, 144–5, 153, 165–6, 168, 174

-saving 95, 134–6

Engineers without Borders 179–80

enterprise see also corporation

commercial 10–11, 36, 40–41, 111, 165–6, 169

MNE (multinational) 6, 9–10, 39, 58–60, 62–3, 82–4, 87, 91, 94, 101–11, 119–21, 123, 125–6, 128–9, 131–2, 136–62, 164, 172, 187–8

MSME (micro, small and medium-sized) 76, 77, 81

social 2, 9–11, 13, 29–30, 36, 40–44, 47, 50–51, 64, 67, 97, 114–16, 126–8, 133–4, 136–8, 145, 153–4, 163–7, 169–74, 177–8, 183

entrepreneurship 2, 26, 44–5, 49, 75, 91, 134, 177, 189, 191

ethnic/diaspora 43

micro- 49, 60, 134, 139

returnee/Argonaut 43

serial 116

social 4, 41–3, 48, 56–7, 140, 163–9, 179–81, 184–5

TSE (transnational social) 8, 43–4, 104, 174–86

environmental monitoring 108

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 35

“etatisation of society” 38–9

ethical 65, 86

banking 42–3

business model see business model

investment 3, 49–51

ethics 30, 34, 37, 143

Ethiopia 109, 118–19

ethnographic practice 104–5

exclusion see social exclusion

experimental 32, 108, 132, 145, 189–90

export-led industrialization 34

externalities 21, 188

negative 19, 21–2, 31–2

positive 19, 21, 31–2, 64

social 191

face-to-face interactions 58

failure

double 55, 189, 190

heterarchical 25

market 12, 18–19, 21, 25, 64, 189–90

non-market 56

systemic 188–9

state 2, 4, 11, 53, 55, 57, 67, 91, 189

family planning 113–14

finance, micro- see micro-finance

finance, social see social finance

financial inclusion see inclusion financial literacy 167–8

firm, theory of the 37, 39, 62see also corporation; enterprise

for profit sector 39, 65, 158, 160, 162–3

flexibility

domain 12–13, 31–3, 137–8, 188

organizational 29–30

scalar 13, 31, 137, 174

Ford Foundation 46, 76, 119

foundations 36, 50–51, 52, 60, 137, 153, 156, 166–7, 185, 187

corporate 29–30, 48,

global 10, 40, 48

private 40, 44–7, 67, 119, 136, 170

religious 48, 146

“fourth sector” 41, 56see also enterprise; entrepreneurship

France 41

free-rider problem 23–4, 42–3

Gandhian ideals 6, 8, 70–71, 77, 80, 91

Gandhi, Indira 73

Gandhi, Rajiv 74

Gates Foundation see Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

geography 8–9, 49, 57–9, 63, 191see also location

Ghana 119, 152

Giving Pledge 45

“glass floor” 39, 94–5, 111

global civil society 31

Global Innovation Index 5–6, 69

global merit goods 20–22, 25, 32, 52

global public goods 11, 15–16, 20–21, 27, 44

governance 1–2, 13–18, 25–30, 56, 75

collaborative 4, 13, 61

corporate 11

gap 32–4

global 4, 22, 30, 34, 38–9, 40

good 15–16

hybrid 5, 31–3

meta- 25, 32, 187

network 1, 24–7, 187

polycentric 1–2, 11, 15, 22–3, 25, 27, 32–3

scales in 25

shareholder 35

stakeholder 22, 35

void 28

government see state

government certificates 100, 155

GPPP (global public–private partnership) see partnership

GPS (geographic positioning system) 100–101

Grameen Bank 42

Grameen Foundation 126

Grand Challenges Canada 116, 183

grassroots innovation see innovation

grassroots NGOs see NGOs

Green Revolution 73–4

Gujarat 98, 120

Hardin, Garrett 20, 66

Harvard Business School 177–8, 181

Haryana 121

healthcare 40–41, 47, 54, 70, 80, 84, 86–7, 97, 109, 112–14, 141, 143, 149, 167–70, 176–7

heterarchical failure see failure

heterarchy 1–2, 11, 24–5, 27, 29–30, 32–3, 187

heterogeneity 31–2, 40, 63, 65, 188–9, 191

hierarchy 22, 24, 163, 187

HIV 70, 117, 166–7

Hivos Foundation 123, 137

HNWIs (high-net-worth individuals) 48, 50–51

Hume, David 18

hybrid domain 1–2, 4, 6, 8, 11–13, 27–34, 40, 44–5, 48, 51–2, 67–8, 136–8, 163, 172–4, 187–91

hybrid entities 2, 30, 189

hybrid governance 5, 31–3

hybrid logic 28, 190

hybrid mission 30, 56

hybrid norms see norms

hybrid organization see organization

Hyderabad 10

I3N (Intellecap Impact Investment Network) 51

ICTs (information and communication technologies) 3, 15, 23–4, 54–5, 60, 191 see also Internet

IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) 182

illiteracy 3, 100

IMF (International Monetary Fund) 74–5

immigrants 43, 182see also migrants

immunoassays 115

impact investment 49–51, 164

impacts

disruptive 96, 151, 191

social 2, 55–6, 63, 67, 111, 138, 174, 189

systemic 5, 15, 56, 188–90

import-substitution 72

incentive 76, 190

deficient 64

financial 47

user 64–6, 99

inclusion

financial 81–2, 122, 125–7

socio-political 5, 122, 134

inclusive capitalism see capitalism

inclusive development see development

India 5–11, 69–81, 101–37

Indian Angels Network 51

indigenous

knowledge 60

requirement 96

technology 72, 75

Indonesia 107, 121, 152

Industrial Policy (India) 72, 75

industrialization 34, 72–3, 188–9

infant mortality rate 152

informal employment 127, 129

informal retailers 131–2

informal sector 3, 77, 112, 127, 130–31

information asymmetry 29, 117–18, 150

infrastructure 3, 6, 8, 43, 55, 57, 67, 70–75, 80–81, 99–100, 113, 116–17, 122, 125–7, 131, 141, 154, 189

innovation

business model 57

community driven 120

disincentives for 72–3

disruptive 16, 151, 191

eco- 60

frugal 8, 57, 93–5

grassroots 3, 6, 8

institutional 68

market-driven 55–6, 61–5, 68

open 62, 68

organizational 12, 32, 185

pedagogical 128

resource-constrained 57, 70, 72

reverse 9–10, 93, 109

social 1–6, 8–9, 53–68, 83, 89, 91–2, 101, 103–5, 112, 136, 154, 185–6, 189–90

technological 3, 55, 57, 72, 107

user-led 64

institutional bricolage 11, 26–7

institutional contexts see contexts

institutional design see design

institutional diversity 31, 52

institutional innovation see innovation

institutional knowledge see knowledge

institutional path-dependence 21–2

institutional reform see reform

institutional thickness 77–8, 189

interdependencies 15, 57

intergenerational responsibilities 16, 34–5

international aid/development agency 16, 67–8, 183

International Financial Corporation 50

Internet 5, 59, 61–2, 64, 68, 98, 114, 122–3see also ICTs

investment

ethical see ethical, investment

impact see impact investment

PRI (program related) 50

ROI (return on) 88–9

see also MIF

IP (intellectual property) 3, 62

Iran 121

Iraq 109

Italy 41, 49

Jan-Dhan Yojana82

jeito 3

Jessop, Bob 24–5, 187

Jharkhand 121, 126

jugaad3, 57, 77

Kanchipuram 116

Karnataka 105, 119–21, 124, 136, 170

know-how 9, 43–4, 155–6

know-who 155–6

knowledge

contextual 12, 60, 96, 99

demand-side 61

gap 103–5, 153–4

indigenous see indigenous knowledge

institutional 60

scientific 61

spillover 59, 67

tacit 56, 58, 120, 128

technical 59, 181

transfer (South–South) 106–9

L3C (Low-profit Limited Liability Company) 36

‘last mile’ problem/solution 55, 114–15

late industrializers 71–2

lead user 58, 63

leapfrog 96–7

learning 6, 96, 101, 105–6, 127, 189

by partnering 120, 138, 144–5, 151, 159–60

contextual 55–6, 151

cross-sector 33

inter-organizational 56, 58

through amplifying 12, 55, 105

through collaborating 11, 59, 144–56

through experiencing 106

through local presence 12, 102–3

legitimacy, social see social legitimacy

local presence 12, 102–3see also geography; location

localization 58, 60, 96

location 5–6, 8, 43, 56–8, 63, 70, 78, 106, 111, 114, 131see also geography; local presence

London School of Economics 44, 181

Macarthur Foundation 123, 137

Manipur 121

market-based strategies 41–2, 45, 47–8

market intelligence 11, 53, 61, 64, 68

market logic 53, 190

marketization of the state 2

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 109

Mastercard Foundation 40

medical device 85, 87–90, 112–13, 170

medical diagnostics 112, 115–17, 137, 176

Meghalaya 121

merit goods 19, 28, 52, 173

Mexico 177

MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) 80–81

micro-ATM (automatic teller machine) 100, 132

micro-credit 54–5, 171–2, 167–8

micro-delivery 55, 60

micro-finance 95

micro-franchising 12, 54, 135–6

micro-packaging 95

micro-payment 134–5

middle class 90, 104

MIF (Multilateral Investment Fund) 50

migrants 125–6see also immigrants

millennials 30, 37–8, 179–80

missions

dual 2, 32, 165

hybrid 30, 56

social 2, 27, 29, 35–6, 43, 49, 56, 135, 141, 149, 152, 163

MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 44

mitigation 22, 32

MNE (Multinational Enterprise) see enterprise

mobile phone 12, 60, 63, 94, 109–10, 114, 121–3, 135, 176–7

mobilization 1, 168

Modi, Narendra 81–2

monopoly 18–19

MOP (middle of the pyramid) market 89–90, 144–5

moral hazards 16

Moulaert, Frank 53–4

multi-lingual 8, 97, 107

Mumbai Angels 51

Myanmar 121

National Rural Health Mission (India) 80–82

National Skill Development Corporation (India) 129

national system of innovation 55, 67

needs-centered perspective 64–5 also see Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Nehruvian ideals 6, 70, 72, 76, 80, 91

NGO (non-governmental organization) 4, 8, 13, 29–30, 33, 38–41, 47, 65, 67, 77–81, 86–7, 98, 102, 113–14, 118–19, 121–3, 144–68, 170–73, 178, 184, 187–9

grassroots 8–9, 86, 118–19

leveraged 29–30, 33, 163

strategic 29

Niger 118–19

Nike Foundation 40

non-profit sector 32, 35, 38–9, 44–5, 56, 138, 170–73

norms 24, 27, 29, 60, 182–3, 187–8

hybrid 31

shared 188

NRI (Non-resident Indian) 74, 175

nutrition 118, 141, 166

ODA (official development assistance) 44

Omidyar Network 50

open innovation see innovation

open source 64, 123, 176–7

organization

hybrid 13, 30, 32, 35–6, 138, 163–4, 172–3, 185

organic 24, 26

organizational culture 158–9

organizational flexibility see flexibility

organizational innovation see innovation

Olson, Mancur 23

Orissa 121, 130

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) 34–5

Ostrom, Elinor 11, 20, 22–4, 187

participatory development see development

partnership 16, 30–31, 33, 39, 56, 118, 137, 140, 146, 148–9, 152–8, 171–2, 177

GPPP (global public–private) 44

PDP (product development) 47

PPP (public–private) 17–19, 24, 75

VxDP (Vaccine Discovery) 47–8

patents 6see also IP

path-dependence see institutional path-dependence

PDP (Product Development Partnerships) see partnership

philanthrocapitalism 2, 44

“philanthropreneurs” 45–7

philanthropy 20, 33, 44–5, 47–51, 84, 143see also venture philanthropy

Pitroda, Satyen 73–4

PMGSY (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana) 80

Polanyi, Karl 28, 189–90

populism 73–4

portable 9, 115, 133

poverty 3, 6, 43, 57, 65, 81–2, 104, 120, 129, 135

alleviation 21–2, 42, 65, 120

power asymmetry 8, 65

power relations 39, 60, 66, 187

PPP (public–private partnership) see partnership

pragmatic/pragmatism 12, 28, 30–31, 65, 76

Prahalad, C. K. 12, 82–5, 91, 143

PRI (program-related investment) see investment

prisoners’ dilemma 23

private interests 2, 15, 28–30, 51–2, 189

privatization 11, 53

pro-poor design see design

product development 64, 119, 151

productivist bias 63

profit maximization 36–7, 41

profitability 83–4, 91, 120, 142, 157, 165

proximity 20, 57–9, 96, 101

public goods 15, 18–21, 23, 42, 60, 67, 70, 80, 82

global see global public goods

public health 21–2, 54, 80, 82

global 20, 47

public interests 15, 17, 31, 38–9, 188

public sector reform see reform

Pune 10

R&D (research and development) 6–7, 9–10, 33, 47, 58–63, 75, 82–3, 95, 101–2, 141, 144–5, 149–50, 151, 153, 173

globalized 63

hazards in 62

market-capture 60

public 67

Rajasthan 130

randomized control trials 66

rationality 25, 32

rational action see action

rational actor see actor

reagents 115–16

recycling 42–3

reform

structural 34, 75

institutional 15

public sector 17–18

regulatory 154

regulation 17, 18, 113

remittance 68, 82, 125–6, 172

remote diagnosis 97

remote maintenance 99

rent-seeking 18–19

reputation 30, 37–8, 65, 140, 142, 146, 159, 168see also legitimacy; reputational risk

rescaling 15, 21–2, 27–9, 31

resilience 60

reterritorializing 32–3

rights-based issues 161

Rio de Janeiro 107

RIS (Radiology Information System) 97

risk

business 88

financial 21, 125, 159

reputational 140–42, 146, 159

Robin-Hood see business model

Rockefeller Foundation 49–51

ROI (return on investment) see investment

RTBI (Rural Technology and Business Incubator) 125

rural development see development

scalar flexibility see flexibility

“scalar mismatch” 31, 33

scalable 5, 106–7, 116

scale

relativization of 191

transformative 149

-up 107, 113, 174

Scheduled Tribes (India) 122

Schelling, Thomas 23

Schwab Foundation 163

Science and Technology Policy (India) 75

secondary marketing 12, 58, 94

self-help groups 77, 126see also women

self-regulation 26, 35

self-reliance 6, 76–7, 91, 167

self-rule (swaraj) 76

self-sufficiency 74–5, 91, 6–8, 71–2

shanzhai3

shared value 2, 31, 138, 140–41

shareholder

activism 49

primacy 36–7

Shiv Nadar Foundation 48

Silicon Valley 5, 117, 119, 180, 184

Singapore 10, 50, 169, 177

Singh, Manmohan 75

slum, 31, 84,103–5, 145, 151, 157, 161, 167, 181

SMS (short message service) 97–8, 119–20, 130, 135

social capital 43, 50, 186

social enterprise see enterprise; social entrepreneurship see entrepreneurship

social exclusion 54

social finance 33, 49–50, 60, 184–5, 187

Social Impact Bonds 50

Social Innovation Fund 183

social legitimacy 39, 164see also reputation

social networks 129–30, 179, 181–3

social value 31, 39–42, 55, 189

social welfare 41, 70, 81, 190

socialism, Fabian 76

socialization of markets 2

solar PV (photovoltaic) 133, 135

South Africa 69–71, 132

South–South knowledge transfer 106–9 see also innovation, reverse

sovereignty 22, 32, 79

Sri Lanka 133

SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) 80, 124

SSBM (socially sustainable business model) see business model

SSN (Social Success Note) 51

stakeholder 4, 10–11, 13, 22, 27–8, 32–5, 41, 52, 56, 63, 81, 119, 131, 136–7, 145, 166, 191

dialog 35

hybrid 163

self-maximizing 23–4

see also capitalism; governance

Stanford University 44, 177

state 16, 28, 67–8, 70–81, 154–6

bureaucratic 25

devolution of 42

failure 4, 11, 53, 67, 91, 189–90

-market relations 3, 13–14, 17

marketization of see marketization of the state

STPs (Software Technology Parks) 74

“strategic stickiness” 42

supply chain 103, 116–17, 119, 148

survey (questionnaire) 9–10, 144, 150, 153

sustainability

employment 54

environmental 20, 54, 60, 141–2

financial 40, 113

livelihood 147

Swach Bharath Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) 81–2

“swelling of the middle” 2, 187

synergy 17–18, 140–42, 145, 148, 168

cross-domain 17

for-profit/non-profit 141, 168

for-profit/CSR 140, 142

reputational 168

talent 57, 67, 88–9, 101–2, 168, 186

Tamil Nadu 121, 124

Tanzania 118–19, 135

technology see indigenous technology; innovation; jeito; jugaad; shanzhai

technological transfer 59

tele-medicine 12, 97, 113–13, 169–70, 175–6

tele-radiology 97, 169–70

thermoplastics 115–16

Thailand 107, 152

“third sector” 40–41, 56see also NGOs

“Third Way” 18

TSE (transnational social entrepreneurship) see entrepreneurship

training 97, 105, 109, 112, 118, 124127–9, 170, 172

transaction cost 3, 39, 62, 135

transparency 33, 36, 47

tribal communities see community

triple movement 28, 189–90

trust 23–4, 135, 148

absence of 62

-based relationships 134

established 113–14

void 39

underserved 2, 56, 59, 63, 66, 122, 134, 166, 169see also BOP

United Kingdom 8, 35–7, 45, 47, 50

United States 2–4, 8, 10, 13, 30, 34–6, 45, 47, 49, 50, 183

University of California, Berkeley 14, 44

urban–rural gaps 6

user

communities 64–5

-friendly 60, 95, 161

incentive see incentive

-led innovation see innovation

Uttar Pradesh 113, 136

value engineering 57 see also innovation, frugal

values 29, 31, 43, 57, 143, 160, 162, 174also see social value

venture capital 45, 62, 183, 185–6

venture philanthropy 45–50see also philanthropy

video-based content 118–19

Vietnam 107, 152

village council 77–8

voice 64, 97–8, 122–3, 160

voice-based applications 98

VxDP (Vaccine Discovery Partnership) see partnership

Washington consensus 15–16, 17–18

water 35, 70, 73, 91–3, 104, 108–9, 121, 140, 152–3, 179

Wellcome Trust 47

wicked problems 57, 72, 93–4, 100–101, 107

women

poor working 167–8

self-help group 77

training for 147

World Bank CGAP (Consultative Group to Assist the Poor) 126

World Health Indicators 112

Zurich 106–7