Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Social Innovation and Democratic Leadership

Communities and Social Change from Below

Marc Parés, Sonia M. Ospina and Joan Subirats

This book explores new forms of democracy in practice following the 2011 global uprisings; democracy that comes from below, by and for the ‘have-nots’. Combining theories of social innovation and collective leadership, it analyses how disadvantaged communities have addressed the effects of economic recession in two global cities: Barcelona and New York.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Marc Parés, Sonia M. Ospina and Joan Subirats

adaptive capacities, 52

advocacy (incidence), 32

Allied Communities Against Buy-Outs (ACABO), 102

Arcàdia, 178, 1878

Assemblea del Barri de Sants, 179

Associació Xiula, 164

Association for Fostering Sant’s Cooperative and Solidarity Economy, 187

Ateneu Llibertari de Sants, 182

Banana Kelly Community Improvement Association, 128

Barcelona

Barcelona en Comú, election victory, 3940

City Council, 35, 150, 1868, 196, 198

comparing NYC with, 2012

effects of the Great Recession in, 228

General Metropolitan Plan, 184

homelessness in, 234

impact of Great Recession in, 39

Indignados movement, 38, 39, 203

local problems in, 200201

politics, 40

urban policies, 38

urban transformation in, 184

Barcelona en Comú, 4041

Barcelona Model, 3740

Black–Puerto Rican, 95

Bloc Onze, 1858

bottom-linked, 2278, 2313

bridging differences, 138

leadership practices, 79, 2212, 226, 230

social change organizations, 813

Bushwick, 11415, 117

South Bronx, 138, 144

Nou Barris Nord, 168

Sants, 196

bridging social capital, 64

Bronx Nonprofit Coalition, 129

built environment, 53

Bushwick, 203

bridging difference, 221

civic capacity in, 207, 209

creativity in a threatened neighbourhood, 1056

ecostation, 11116

Small Business United, 10611

Ecostation in, 21213, 226

gentrification, 134, 207

gentrification, before and after Great Recession, 969

Great Recession, 967

Latino community, 95, 98, 100102, 104, 107, 110, 111, 115

MTRNY, 1012

neighbourhood features and resilience, 2056

population, 95

RBSCC, 1015

SBU in, power-based community organizing, 213

shifting civic capacity, 100105

social structure of, 100

unemployment rate, 98

Bushwick Farmers’ Market, 112

Bushwick’s Community Board, 1045

Caixa de Resistencia, 167, 169

Cameron, David, 35

‘Campus Farm,’ 11112

Can Batlló, 18391, 217

Bloc Onze, 1858

bridging difference, 2212

challenges, 189

Coopolis project, 1858

La Borda, 1858

leadership practices, 190

management model, 190

reframing discourse, 190, 222

transformative initiatives, 21314, 216

Can Vies conflict, 179

Catalonia, 178

CDCs see Community Development Corporations

Centre Autogestionari La Hamsa, 178

Centre Cruïlla, 156, 215

bridging difference, 221

community development, 212

community development organization, 1667

Community Development Plan, 160

educational focus, 164

objective of, 165

public administration and its policies, 166

reframing discourse, 222

relationships between public administration and, 166

social workers, 165

unleashing the energy of young people, 167

youth development, 166

Centre Social Autogestionat Can Vies, 178

Centre Social de Sants, 179, 180, 189

Ciutat Meridiana, 14953, 155, 158

Neighbourhood Association, 156, 158, 160, 161

civic capacity, 54

basic meaning of, 57

building and using, 634

in Bushwick, 207, 209

Bushwick and, 100105

collaboration, consensus and contestation, 5960

community and, 6061

as crucial community resource, 2079

defined, 567

developing, 61

dynamic, 64

Ecostation, 116

intergroup, 612

mobilization of community, 55

as neighbourhood resource, 557

neighbourhoods, 226

in Nou Barris Nord, 2089, 214

power and governance, 579

in Sants, 208, 209

social capital, 56, 62

in South Bronx, 208, 209

work of, 6062

Civic Capacity and Urban Education (Stone), 55

civic, defined, 55

CLT see complexity leadership theory

coalitions, 30

Colau, Ada, 39, 195, 196

collaboration, Sants, 17783

collaborative governance, 58

collective capacity of leaders, 789

collective leadership, 14

and democracy, 858

constructing, 878

developing, 878

in ecostation, 113, 116

and social innovation, 723

constructionist critique of leadership, 735

theories, 6970

Collserola, 153

Comissió de Veïns de La Bordeta, 179, 189

communities, 367

community

and civic capacity, 59, 6061

competence, 52

consensus, 59

development, 59

organizing, 5960

Community Action Program (CAP), 95

Community Action for Safe Apartments (CASA), 125

community building, 32, 5960, 21213, 21516

of ecostation, 11213

community development, 1718, 212

Community Development Corporations (CDCs), 30, 41, 120, 1278

community development organization, Centre Cruïlla, 166

Community Development Plan, 15960, 165

community engagement, 32

complex adaptive system (CAS), 70

complexity leadership theory (CLT), 6970

Conger, J.A., 16

consensus, 5960

constructionist leadership, 7072, 735

in social change organizations, 757

constructionist leadership theory, 7072

relational leadership, 1417, 19

contentious politics (resistance), 32

contestation, 5960

Sants, 17783

COOP57, 178

cooperativism, Sants, 17783

Coopolis project, 178, 1858

Coordinadora de Festes Alternatives, 178

coping capacities, 52

Cotxeres, 181

counterhegemonic practices, Sants, 1834

Can Batlló, 18491

Platform for Mortgage Affected People, 1916

creative approach, of social innovation, 89

creative leadership practices, in Ecostation, 116

crisis, 1718

Davila, Maritza, 104

de Blasio, Bill, 43

‘deficient community’ model, 138

Democracy as Problem Solving (de Souza Briggs), 56

democracy, collective leadership and, 858

democratic leadership, 16

collective, 725

leader-centred relational theories, 689

social change organizations, 759, 7985

systems-centred collective, constructionist theories, 7072

systems-centred relational, collective theories, 6970

democratic leadership practices, 2289, 231

desplazados’, 125

Diaz, Ruben, 126

discursive leadership theory (DLT), 70

displaced immigrants, 125

disruptive social innovation, 8, 10, 19, 35

diverse community, South Bronx, 12631

East Brooklyn Congregations (EBC), 102

economic development, 52

economic opportunities, 53

economistic approach, social innovation, 7

Ecostation, 11116, 217, 222

aim of, 111

bridging different groups, 226

bridging two Bushwicks, 221

in Bushwick, 21213, 226

Bushwick Farmers’ Market, 112

‘Campus Farm,’ 11112

civic capacity creation, 116

collaborative texture of, 113

community building philosophy, 11213

development of youth leadership, 11415

‘Educational Farm,’ 113

Farm-in-the-Sky, 112

Great Recession, 115

leadership practices, 11316

Nou Barris Nord, 21213

as organization, 112

reframing discourse, 114

social entrepreneurs, 115

transformative initiatives, 214

unleashing human energies, 220

‘Educational Farm,’ 113

effectiveness and scalability of social

innovation

bottom-linked initiatives, 2278

historical–geographical context, 2236

leadership practices, 2267

El Petit Sol, 156

El Torrent, 156

emergency hardship fund, 50×20 initiative, 167, 169

empowerment, 6

España Industrial and Vapor Vell, 180

Esping-Andersen, G., 27

European Commission

features of social innovation, 56

innovation by, 345

European Social Model, 27

evictions, Sants, 1756

Fab-Lab project, 1589, 169

Farm-in-the-Sky, 112

FBP see Friends of Brook Park

FIARE-COOP57, 186

50×20 initiative, 162

money, 168

reaction of District administration to, 169

relationship in public authorities and, 169

social impact, 170

transparency and accountability, 168

500×20 initiative, 156

‘food desert’ issue, 131

framing social change, 212

Fraser, Nancy, 200201

Fresh Direct controversy, 1389

Fresh Direct project, 12930

Friends of Brook Park (FBP), 14042, 146

gentrification

Barcelona, 39

Bushwick, 134, 207

in Bushwick, before and after Great Recession, 969

New York City, 41

pressure of, 202

South Bronx, 125, 126

geographical approach, social innovation, 910

geographical position, 53

glocalization process, 25

governance, 58

grassroots organizations, 30

Great Recession

deep crisis of institutional politics, 26

effect on southern Europe, 245

effect on Spain and US, 224

features of a new era, 256

GDP levels of G20 countries, 22

gentrification in Bushwick, 969

glocalization process, 25

homelessness in NYC and Barcelona, 234

housing prices in US, 22

inequality in Spain and US, 23

internet and, 26

macro-level responses to the, 324

New York City, 223, 41

social innovation in, 346

unemployment rates, 22, 23

Green Buildings programme, 133

gross domestic product (GDP), in Great Recession, 22, 25

grounded humanism, 77

Hispanic employment, 108, 109

Hurricane Sandy, 42

Indignados movement, 31, 38, 39, 155, 161, 183, 185, 189, 203, 229

individual to collective leadership leader-centred relational theories, 689

systems-centred collective, constructionist theories, 7071

systems-centred relational, collective theories, 6970

information and communication resources, 52

intergroup capacity, 612

La Borda, 174, 178, 1848

La Ciutat Invisible, 1778

LaCol cooperative, 186

La Indomable, 156

La Plaça Roja, 148

Latin American Integration Center (LAIC), 107

Latino community, Bushwick, 95, 98, 100102, 104, 107, 110, 111, 115

leader-centred relational theories, 689

leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, 1415, 68

leadership

charismatic theories of, 14

leader-centred and follower-centred approaches, 1516

political science perspective, 1617

relational theories, 1318

in social change organizations, 1718

in socially innovative initiatives, 219

see also social innovation

leadership-as-practice (L-A-P), 16

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 134

leadership practices, 218

bridging difference, 2212, 226

collective action and, 22930

reframing discourse, 2223, 227

unleashing human energies, 220, 226

Lisbon Special European Council, 34

LMX theory see leader–member exchange theory

l’Olivera, 178

Lopez, Vito, 1014

MacCallum, D., 8

management leadership theories, 1415

managerial approaches, social innovation, 8

Manhattan, 40

Manuel Cubero, 160

Maria Hernandez Park, 93

Mediterranean welfare state model, 278

Melrose, 12021, 1312

Melrose Commons, 132

Mestre Morera School, 157

‘million-dollar block,’ 140

‘mixed-use housing,’ Nos Quedamos, 132, 133

Mott Haven, 12021, 1312

MTRNY, 1015, 10710, 113, 11617

Neighbourhood associations, 31

neighbourhood civic capacity, 60, 63

neighbourhood comparison, Barcelona and NYC, 2012

neighbourhood features, 206

neighbourhood memory, 53

neighbourhood resilience, 2056

geographical dimension of crisis, 4955

Neighbourhoods Act, 159

neo-charismatic leadership, 14

neoliberalism, 201, 228

network leadership theory (NLT), 6970

New York City (NYC)

comparing with Barcelona, 2012

from decay to the stabilizing challenge, 4043

effects of the Great Recession in, 228

financial industry, 41

gentrification, 41

Great Recession, 223, 41

homelessness in, 234

housing market, 42

local problems in, 200201

Manhattan in, 40

nonprofit sector in, 42

Occupy Wall Street movement in, 203

politics, 43

population, 40

Social Innovation Fund, 35

social movements, 4041

urban devastation, 41

see also Barcelona

New York City Housing Authority

(NYCHA), 119, 141

NLT see network leadership theory

nonlinear social innovation, 8

nonprofit sector

defined, 28

in Spain, 3031

in US, 2930

Nos Quedamos, 128

bridging difference, 221

community development, 212

housing and development, 1356

leadership practices, 1367

‘mixed-use housing,’ 132, 133

redevelopment plan, 132

reframing discourse, 1378, 222

transformative initiatives, 214

unleash the human energy, 137

Nou Barris Acull, 162

Nou Barris Cabrejada diu Prou, 162

Nou Barris Nord, 2045

civic capacity, 2089, 214

declining social capital, spoilt civic capacity, 15360

economic revitalization, 153

Ecostation in, 21213, 226

effect of Great Recession on, 159

immigrants, 150

lack of civic capacity, 1578

neighbourhood features and resilience, 2056

neighbourhoods, 150

Neighbourhoods Act, 159

population, 150

population replacement, 150

public policies, 159

social capital decline, 1567

social mobilization, 154, 161

social organizations in, 155

solidarity and resistance to cope with crisis effects, 16063

Centre Cruïlla, 1637

50×20 initiative, 16770

solidarity-based citizenship responses, 1612

unemployment, evictions and stigmatization, 15053

Nou Barris Nord Social Service Centre, 159

NYU Furman Center Report (2015), 96, 98

Obama, Barack, 35

Occupy Wall Street movement, 42, 140, 146, 203, 229

organizing, 32

Pactes de la Fundació Miró, 181

PAH Barcelona, 162

Partits dels Socialistes de Catalunya (PSC), 39

path–goal theory, 15

Pearce, C.L., 16

Plaça de Sants, 179

Platform for Mortgage Affected People (PAH), 156, 183, 1916, 207, 214, 215, 216, 217

Barcelona City Council agreement with, 193

bridging difference, 221

bridging social groups, 2267

Catalan law for urgent measures, 196

leadership practices, 192, 194, 196

reframing discourse, 222, 227

in Sants, power-based community organizing, 213

unleashing human energies, 220

‘V de Vivienda,’ 1934

see also Can Batlló

Platform for the Coordination of Alternative Parties, 178

platforms, 31

Polanyi, Karl, 200

policy programmes, 54

political reframing, 222

political science approach, social innovation, 9

post-recession politics, 51

power-based community organizing, 213

pragmatic reframing, 222

public administration, social innovation, 9

‘radical and democratic model’ of organizing, 136

RBSCC see Ridgewood Bushwick Senior Citizens Council

reconfiguring democracy, 2289

Recuperem Can Batlló, 185, 186

reframing discourse

Ecostation, 114

leadership practices, 2223, 227

Nos Quedamos, 1378

PAH, 227

social change organizations, 8081

REGESA, 158

regime politics, 578

relational leadership theories, 13

approaches to, 1417

constructionist, 19

leadership, social change organizations and crisis, 1718

resilience, 2079

defined, 4950

radical theories of, 51

Reynoso, Antonio, 104

Ridgewood Bushwick Senior Citizens Council (RBSCC), 1015, 113, 11617

Salesian community, 164

Salesians Sant Jordi, 163

Sant Andreu, 149

Sants, 204

associative culture in, 177

civic capacity, 208, 209

cooperativism, collaboration and contestation, 17783

counterhegemonic practices, 1834

Can Batlló, 18491

Platform for Mortgage Affected People, 1916

effect of the Great Recession in, 1756

PAH in, power-based community organizing, 213

rising house prices, 176

unemployment, evictions and small business decay, 1756

Sants Barri Cooperatiu, 177

Sants Cooperative Neighbourhood project, 177

Sants Secretariat of Community-Based Organizations, 177

SBU see Small Business United

school dinner scholarships, 168

Schumpeter, J.A., 7

Secretariat d’Entitats de Sants, 177

service delivery, 32

Shared Educational Unit (UEC), 163

small business decay, Sants, 1756

Small Business United (SBU), 10611, 117, 2078, 214, 215, 217

bridging difference, 221

collective leadership, 109

Ecostation, 226

Hispanic employment, 108, 109

reframing discourse, 222

SoBro, 129

social capital, 52, 54, 56, 62

social change, 212

social innovation as a driver of, 230

from social innovation to, 223

bottom-linked initiatives, 2278

historical–geographical context, 2236

leadership practices, 2267

social change leadership, 757

social change organizations (SCOs), 1718

constructionist leadership in, 756

social change leadership, 767

strategies, 32, 35

work of leadership in, 77, 7980

bridging difference, 813

reframing discourse, 8081

unleashing human energies, 835

social identity leadership theory, 14

social innovation

definition and theories, 47, 8

features of, 56

Social Innovation and Impact in

Nonprofit Leadership,20

Social Innovation Fund, NYC, 35

socially innovative initiatives

activities, 215

deconstructing and classifying, 209

community building, 21213

community development, 212

framing social change, 212

nature of the relationships, 217

power-based community organizing, 213

promoters and beneficiaries, 215

transformative community organizing, 21314

leadership in, 210, 211, 219

social movements, New York City, 4041

social organizations, 1113

social structure, 53

social transformation, 9, 1112

socioeconomic crisis, 36

SOCRISIS project approach, 4

solidarity and resistance, crisis effects, 16063

Centre Cruïlla, 1637

50×20, 16770

South Bronx, 2035

‘a dumping ground,’ 124

bridging differences, 144

civic capacity in, 208, 209

community in, 1456

community in planning and development, 139

community response, 1312

Nos Quedamos, 1328

South Bronx Unite (and Friends of Brook Park), 13844

culture, 126

depopulation, 1223

diverse community, 12631

educational failure, 124emergence of nonprofit coalitions, 127

gentrification, 125, 126

Great Recession and, 1216

housing, 128

leadership practices, 1434, 146

nonprofits in, 123, 129

organizational structure, 143

organizations, 140

public and social housing, 124

public investment, 130

revitalization, 127, 128

small businesses, 123

South Bronx Unite, 129

bridging difference, 221

reframing discourse, 222

transformative initiatives, 21314, 216

southern Europe, impact of the recession in, 323

Spain

Great Recession, 223, 334

inequality in Great Recession, 23

Mediterranean welfare state model, 278

nonprofit sector in, 3031

Stone, Clarence, 5564

Sunday urbanization’, 154

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 123

systemic approach, social innovation, 10

systems-centred collective, constructionist theories, 7072

Torre Baró, 149, 150, 155

traditional nonprofit organizations, 2930, 31

‘training youth leaders,’ 135

transformational leadership, 14

Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ), 68

transformational leadership theory, 15

transformative capacities, 52

transformative community organizing, 21314

transformative initiatives, 216

transformative leadership practice, 227

Trias, Xavier, 39, 179

triple movement, 201, 205, 229

unemployment

Nou Barris Nord, 15053

Sants, 1756

unemployment rates, in Great Recession, 22, 23

unleashing human energies

leadership practices, 220, 226

social change organizations, 835

urban devastation, New York City, 41

urban regime, 58

US

and Europe, historical and geographical differences in, 267

macro-level responses to the Great Recession, 324

nonprofit sector and its activities, 2832

social innovation in the face of the crisis, 346

state, the market and the community, 278

Great Recession, 224

inequality in Great Recession, 23

national debt, 34

welfare states model, 27, 28

see also Spain

Vallbona, 14950, 155

V de Vivienda, 1934

welfare state model, US and Spain, 278

Xarxa 033 Educa, 162

youth unemployment, 162, 167

zone effect, resilience and civic capacity

community resource, 2079

neighbourhood features and, 2057