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The Paradigm of State Consent in the Law of Treaties

Challenges and Perspectives

Vassilis Pergantis

The paradigm of state consent in the law of treaties is increasingly under attack. Which narratives on the treaty concept legitimize or delegitimize the challenges to the consensualist paradigm? Which areas of the law of treaties are more concerned by these attacks? What are the ensuing risks? From consent to be bound to treaty succession, and from treaty denunciation to reservations, this book offers a tour de force on the paradigm of state consent, its challenges, and their politics.
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Index

Challenges and Perspectives

Vassilis Pergantis

Abi-Saab, G. 57

ACHR see American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)

acquired or vested rights, theory of 209–12

acte contraire doctrine 108–9, 113

Ago, R. 162

Alma Ata Declaration (1992) 218

amendment procedures, simplified 116–21, 124, 125, 142

American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) 59–60

optional clause concerning jurisdiction of I-ACtHR 174, 181

and reservations to human rights treaties 241–2

withdrawal cases 155, 178, 182, 184, 185

automatic succession doctrine 5, 190, 193

‘accidental’ emergence of 203–6

automaticity rule, denial 213–14

case law, inconclusiveness 221–30

general case law 228–30

Yugoslavian cases before ICJ 221–7

consensualist paradigm 232–3

emergence of 206–30

ipso jure succession 204, 205, 215, 216

justifications for, with regard to human rights treaties 207–12

nature of human rights treaties 208–9

vested or acquired rights, theory of 209–12

legal issues 213–20

degree of automaticity 213–20

lessons from conundrum 230–33

notification 217–18, 230

retroactive effect of notification 217–18

practical unsustainability of 230–31

see also clean slate doctrine; public order treaties, succession to

autonomy 2, 14, 16, 19, 27, 89

and community 14, 15, 32

of consent 93, 140

in expression of consent to be bound 147, 148

sovereign 100, 141

State 3, 17, 19

of will 24, 42, 64, 100, 106, 113, 141, 190, 191

Azerbaijan 219

Balkin, J.M. 13, 24

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989) 133

Bederman, D. 45

Belilos case 279, 298, 303, 306

Bergbohm, C. 39–40

bilateral treaties 46, 48, 50, 53, 64, 72

bilateralization of treaty regimes

objections to 263–70

reciprocity and bilateralization problem 264–5

and reservations to human rights treaties 236

binary and transformational analysis 16–30

argumentative strategy 15, 38

binary and transformational character of tension between self and community 15–16

consensualist paradigm 18, 19

constant oscillation and transformation of theoretical constructions 30

content, problem of 27–30

egotism and cooperation/community 16, 17–21

esoteric and constructed intent, fluctuation between 22–7

individualism versus communitarianism, fluctuation between 15–19, 22

in law of treaties 16–30

linear analysis, limitations 15–16

mutual exclusiveness, impossibility of 15

oscillation 19, 22, 24, 25

pacta sunt servanda principle 19–21

poles, establishment of 15, 16, 18

process and content, tension between 30

rule/exception approach 37

State will and subjectivism 23–4

treaty as negotium, versus treaty as instrumentum27–30

binding nature of treaties 18, 19, 24

intention of parties 75–6

treaty form 22–7, 75

Bosnia-Herzegovina 213, 217, 221, 222–3, 225, 228

Bourdieu, P. 38

Bowett, D. 255, 302

Brierly, J.L. 91

CAHDI see Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (Council of Europe)

Cartagena Protocol 144

Chinkin, C. 26

Churchill, R. 147

classification debate

classification of treaty obligations 48–53

and construction of treaty identities 41–2, 47, 57–8, 64–7

contemporary classifications of treaties 58–67

common/collective interest 62–3

emergence of 34–7

historical attempts at classification 39–67

classification in the ILC codification project 47–58

Rechtsgeschäfte versus Rechtsätze39–40

traités-contrats versus traités-lois42–7

Vereinbarungen versus Verträge40–42

merits and pitfalls of classification efforts 37–9

utility of classification 37, 38

necessity for classification 37

new types of treaties 82

over- and under-inclusiveness of treaty classifications 62

rule/exception approach 37

Vienna regime 42, 55, 63, 65

clean slate doctrine 193, 196–203

‘accidental’ emergence of the automatic succession principle and exceptions to 203–6

continuity upon notification, right to 196–9

and sovereignty 190, 191

subject matter exception to 199–203

see also automatic succession principle; public order treaties, succession to

collective/common interest 1, 3, 8, 39, 103, 125, 232, 304, 310, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329

classification debate 62, 63

‘collective interest’ treaties 58, 62, 66–7, 81, 82, 324

egotism and cooperation/community 17, 18, 19

expression of consent to be bound 140, 141, 142, 147

reciprocity 83, 87

reservations, human rights treaties 234, 236, 237, 239

and right to denounce a treaty 167–74

and soft law 79, 80, 81

withdrawal from a treaty 186, 324

Committee against Torture (CAT) 217, 220

Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (Council of Europe) 319

common interest 62–3, 71

see also collective interest

communitarian considerations

ambivalence of notion of community interest 324

classification debate 35, 50, 57, 62, 66

community values 324, 325

identity of treaties 70

individualism versus communitarianism, fluctuation between 15–19, 22

and reciprocity 84

and soft law 79

Conferences/Meetings of the Parties (COP/MOP) 115, 134, 143–6, 150–51

delegation of rule-making authority to 115, 133, 134

and expression of consent to be bound 133et seq.

theory of remote/general consent 131, 133, 134

Congo v. Rwanda case 228, 259, 260, 282, 287, 291–3

consensualist paradigm

amendment procedures 116–21, 124, 125, 142

automatic succession doctrine 232–3

binary and transformational analysis 18, 19

flexibilization of 5, 6, 152

and legal security 102

outer limits of informality in 116–47

as plea for the construction of a participatory treaty model 281

tension between self and community 15–16

see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)

continuity upon notification, right to 196–9

contract law

and binary/transformational analysis 15–16

concept of contract 67

contrats d’adhésion67

and domestic law analogies 17, 43

freedom of contract 66

and reciprocity 42

see also contractual treaties

contractual treaties

classification debate 35–7, 39, 42–4, 46–7, 52, 54, 64–5, 67

see also law-making treaties; treaties

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic 121

Convention on International Civil Aviation 119

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 143

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 175, 267, 272–3

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 272, 273

Convention on the Rights of the Child 217

critical approach to international treaty law 8–9, 13–16

binary and transformational character of tension between self and community 15–16

conceptual dualities 13

self and the community, fundamental tension between 14

Croatia 213, 221, 225

customary international law

disadvantages of, compared to treaties 71

shift to multilateral treaties from 71–3

deformalization 141–7, 328

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 259, 260

denunciation of treaties see withdrawal of treaties

dialogue dénonciateur8, 187

dialogue framework, reservations 314–21

contribution of treaty actors in the dialogue réservatoire316–21

depository, role 316–17

dialogue réservatoire8

preconditions for development of a dialogue réservatoire315–16

State parties, role 318–21

treaty bodies, role 317–18

dialogue successoral8, 232, 233

dispute settlement clauses

exclusive versus complementary nature of 291–2

as fundamental object/essence of human rights treaties 180–86, 292–4

optional clauses and protocols 286–94

optional versus compulsory nature of 288–91

do ut des paradigm 57

domestic law analogies 17, 43

DPRK see North Korea, withdrawal from NPT

Dupuy, R.-J. 79

ECmHR see European Commission of Human Rights (ECmHR)

Economic and Social Council Official Records (ESCOR) 268

egoistical interests of States 3, 17–18, 35, 50, 57, 83

egotism and cooperation/community 16, 17–21, 83

enabling clauses 133–4, 146, 175

environmental law, international 114, 115, 152

erga omnes status 46, 208, 297

erga omnes contractantes60, 265, 277

Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, Partial Award on Ethiopia’s Claim 4 concerning Prisoners of War 229

esoteric and constructed intent, fluctuation between 22–7

discursive juxtaposition 22–3

form, recourse to 23

European Commission of Human Rights (ECmHR) 58–9, 62, 66

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 63, 66, 187, 228

and classification debate 58–9

and reservations to human rights treaties 266, 279, 280, 288, 303–8

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 59, 63, 228, 273–4, 275, 279–81, 290, 298, 303, 307

European Court of Justice (ECJ) 228

expression of consent to be bound 5, 6, 71, 99–153

contractual relationship 17

deformalization and return to formalism 141–7, 328

and delegation of rule-making authority to treaty bodies 115, 133, 134

evolution of modalities for 99–113

individualism versus communitarianism 100, 101, 113

informality, move towards ‘any other means’ caveat in the VCLT 104–7

majority voting see majority voting

new processes for 113–47

outer limits of informality in the consensualist paradigm 116–47

sociopolitical background of new means 113–16

one-step process and theory of remote/general consent 126–41

decisions adopted on basis of unanimity or consensus 127–32

whether consensualist paradigm preserved 127–32

opting-out technique 118–26

traditional contours of Article 11 VCLT 107–13

acte contraire doctrine 108–12

formality, presumption of 108–12

North Sea Continental Shelf dictum109–12

traditional means of consent 124

treaty-making process 99, 114, 116, 122–4, 126, 127, 133, 135, 142, 147, 149, 151, 153

VCLT, Article 11 122–6

whether preserved 127–32

whether remote consent theory consistent with 139–41

see also consent/State consent

Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 110, 218

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) 213, 219–20

case law 221–7

Fitzmaurice, G. 47–8, 52, 91, 160

flexibility

and formalism 101–3, 147

only on condition of common agreement of States parties 112–13

soft law 77, 78, 79

flexibilization 9, 80, 103, 152, 199, 324

of consensualist paradigm 5, 6, 152

formalism 5–6, 9, 24, 153, 173, 193, 206, 231, 232, 281, 321, 322, 329

backlash towards 81, 124, 147, 153, 231, 328

content 89–90

deformalization 141–7, 328

expression of consent to be bound

evolution of modalities for 103, 106, 108, 112

new processes for 124, 125, 141

and flexibility 101–3, 147

and law of treaties 16, 88–95

return to 141–7, 187–8, 231, 328

treaty concept 82, 89, 91

in VCSST 193, 206

whether VCLT formalistic in nature 106–7

FRY see Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY)

Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros case 20–1, 166, 211

General Assembly Official Records (GAOR) 273

Geneva Conventions (1949) 49, 159, 228, 229

Genocide Convention (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948) 49, 61

automatic succession doctrine 209, 221–8

humanizing purpose 239

ICJ Advisory Opinion on reservations (1951) 49–50, 236, 237–45, 248, 271, 287

reservations to 234, 237–48, 259, 260, 286–8, 291–3

role of UNGA 61

special nature 224

German Democratic Republic (GDR) 218

Giraud, E. 159

Harvard Draft on the Law of Treaties (1935) 20, 91

expression of consent to be bound 104

withdrawal from treaties 154, 158, 161

Havana Convention on Treaties 158

Herndl, K. 213

High Contracting Parties 59, 62

Hudson, M. 73

human rights bodies 217, 259, 315, 322

automatic succession doctrine 232, 233

dialogue réservatoire, role in 317–18

Fifth Meeting of Persons Chairing 213

imperialist motives of bodies and tribunals 295–6

implied powers doctrine 326

monitoring bodies see monitoring bodies

and reservations to human rights treaties 271, 274, 280, 290, 291, 303, 311

see also human rights treaties

Human Rights Committee (HRCttee) 176, 177, 180, 181, 209, 210, 212, 213, 215, 217, 219, 267, 272–8, 284–5, 288–9, 294, 301, 308–10, 315, 317

General Comment 24 (GC24) 273, 277, 328

General Comment 26 (GC26) 176, 179, 209, 210, 212, 229, 327–8

human rights treaties 49

automatic succession doctrine 207–12

dispute settlement clauses as fundamental object/essence of 292–4

institutionalized environment 60, 325–8

integrity 185–6, 211, 237–8, 241, 246, 248, 265, 276, 294–5, 310, 313

object and purpose see object and purpose test

reservations and State consent 234–70

specific traits 58–62

withdrawal from 174, 175–80

see also automatic succession doctrine; human rights bodies

I-ACtHR see Inter-American Court of Human Rights (I-ACtHR)

ICAO see International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

ICCPR see International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

ICJ Advisory Opinion on reservations (1951) 49–50, 236, 237–45, 248, 271, 287

non-reciprocal nature 246

object and purpose test 225

identity of treaties

conclusions on 95

manipulation of 70, 79

shaping in reference to other sources of international law 68–82

shift from treaties to soft law 68, 76–82

ILC see International Law Commission (ILC)

implied powers doctrine 326

individualism versus communitarianism

in expression of consent to be bound 100, 101, 113

fluctuation between 15–19, 22

see also binary and transformational analysis; communitarian considerations

informality

move towards ‘any other means’ caveat in the VCLT 104–7

outer limits of, in the consensualist paradigm 116–47

opting-out technique 118–26

institutionalization of treaty regimes 4, 5, 7, 57, 60, 62, 87, 147

trend towards 325

instrumentum, treaty as 5, 54

binary and transformational analysis 27–30

reciprocity 85

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (I-ACtHR) 59, 155, 176, 185, 242, 274, 308

and reservations to human rights treaties 241–3

and withdrawal from optional clauses and protocols 174, 182, 183, 184

Inter-American system 59

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 168

Safeguards Agreement with 169, 172

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 127

Council 119, 120

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 207

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS, 1974) 121, 126

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 176, 288, 314

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Advisory Opinion on reservations to Genocide Convention (1951) 49–50, 236–45, 248, 271, 287

on conundrum between compatibility and opposability 259–61

Congo v. Rwanda228, 259, 260, 282, 287, 291–3

and formalism 91–3

Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros20–21, 166, 211

optional clause 183–4, 288, 290, 293

Qatar v. Bahrain25–6, 93–4

and South West Africa 129

Statute 129, 183, 221, 290

Yugoslavian cases before 221–7

Legality of Use of Force224, 226, 259, 260

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 87, 174–7, 213, 219, 267–9, 272, 278, 280–81, 288

First Optional Protocol 155, 180–81, 212, 266, 289, 305, 308, 310

North Korea’s attempt to withdraw from 155, 175–6

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 175, 187

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 228

International Health Regulations (IHR) 314

International Law Association (ILA) 137, 194, 201

Committee on Aspects of the Law of State Succession 229

International Law Commission (ILC)

codification project 36, 45, 47–58

drafting committee 162

Final Draft on the Law of Treaties 25, 46, 53, 56, 105, 109, 160, 162, 250–52, 257, 263, 271

Final Draft on State Succession to Treaties 196, 199, 202, 204

Guidelines on reservations 256–9, 328

international legal order 34, 113, 154, 186, 187, 195, 232, 265, 324, 325

and sources of international law 68–72, 77, 78, 80

International Maritime Organization (IMO) 120

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 138

ipso jure succession 204, 205, 215, 216

Ireland v. United Kingdom case 63, 66

ius inter partes40

Ivcher Bronstein case 60, 181, 185, 186, 290–91, 294–5

Jellinek, G. 35, 191

Jenks, W.C. 192, 199–202

Kazakhstan 219

Kelsen, H. 35–6

Kennedy, D. 14, 67

Klabbers, J. 301

Koskenniemi, M. 152, 173

Kratochwil, F. 140

Kyoto Protocol non-compliance procedure 143–6

Lauterpacht, H. 24–5, 36, 42–3, 65, 300

Law of the Sea Conventions (1958) 110, 160

see also United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

law of treaties

binary and transformational analysis see binary and transformational analysis

consensual approach 15–16

doctrinal analysis 16–17

expression of consent 9

and formalism 16, 88–95

reciprocity, role of 82–8

rules 7–8

sociopolitical considerations 85, 113–16

and soft law 74

State intent 22, 24

studies 1

see also law-making treaties

law-making treaties

classification debate 35–6, 37, 39, 42–6, 52, 57

and clean slate doctrine 201–3

law-making character 61–2, 165, 196, 199

reciprocity 85

see also contractual treaties; treaties

League of Nations 128–9, 130, 235

legal expectations doctrine 16

Legality of Use of Force case 224, 226, 259, 260

lex specialis4, 48, 60, 182, 184, 270, 284, 329

effort to introduce a subject matter lex specialis on reservations 261–3

linear analysis, limitations 15–16

living instrument concept 326

Loizidou case 58, 244, 280, 304, 306, 308

London Declaration (1871) 158

majority voting

and expression of consent to be bound 116, 123, 139, 141, 142, 148, 149, 151

remote/general consent theory 133–8

supermajority 136

Maritime Safety Committee 120–21

MARPOL 73/78118–19

McNair, A. 36

MEAs see multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs)

Memorandum on Mutual Understanding on Issues of Succession to Treaties of the Former USSR Having Mutual Interest (6 July 1992) 218–19

monitoring bodies 5, 6, 8, 63, 187, 231, 320, 325–6, 327

implied powers doctrine 326

reservations, human rights treaties 270, 271, 275, 286, 312, 313, 315, 317

Montreal Protocol 117, 127, 134–6

multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) 121, 148, 149

remote/general consent theory 131, 133

multilateral treaties 46, 48, 53, 54, 68, 265

shift from customary international law to 71–3

municipal law analogies 17, 43, 64–5, 69

nature of treaties 7–8

binding 18, 19, 24

human rights treaties 208–9

negativist thesis, State succession 194, 195

negotium, treaty as 5

binary and transformational analysis 27–30

classification debate 43, 44, 54

reciprocity 85

non-compliance mechanism 143, 145

North Korea

attempt to withdraw from ICCPR 155, 175–6

withdrawal from NPT 154, 155, 168–9, 174

North Sea Continental Shelf cases 113

NPT see Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)

object and purpose test

classification debate 55

compatibility versus opposability conundrum 254–6

ICJ on 259–61

constructing, with regard to reservations to jurisdictional clauses 286–96

dispute settlement clauses/protocols as fundamental object/essence of human rights treaties 292–4

Genocide Convention 225

ICJ Advisory Opinion (1951) 243–5

introduction of 248–51

objections linked to 250

objective nature 250, 255, 260

permissibility/compatibility thesis 251–2, 254

‘real’ object and purpose of human rights treaties 295–6

reciprocity 87

and system of acceptances/objections 251–61

compatibility versus opposability conundrum 254–6

ICJ on conundrum between compatibility and opposability 259–61

ILC guidelines on reservations 256–9

see also reservations, human rights treaties

O’Connell, D.P. 200–201

Office of Legal Affairs (OLA) 149, 272, 273

one-step processes, and theory of remote/general consent 126–41

majority voting 133–8

whether remote consent theory consistent with consensualist paradigm of Article 11VCLT 139–41

opting-out technique 118–22, 235

and Article 11 of VCLT 122–6

and quorum technique 118

ordre public307

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 143

Organizations of American States (OAS) 178, 236

oscillation 3, 6, 8, 9, 14, 19, 25, 27, 30, 34, 81, 142, 193, 216, 246–7, 322

binary and transformational analysis in law of treaties 19, 22, 24–5

between communication and autonomy 27

critical approach to international treaty law 14–5

between esoteric intention and external manifestations 24

expression of consent to be bound 103, 106, 142, 149

between form and content 25, 27

public order treaties, succession to 190, 193–4, 196

reservations, human rights treaties 246, 308, 314, 322

theoretical background to State treaties 30, 32

treaty withdrawal cases 158, 162, 166, 172–3, 181, 184–5

pacta sunt servanda principle

binary and transformational analysis 19–21

and rebus sic stantibus19–21

reciprocity 85

and reservations 249

and withdrawal cases 156–7

Pan-American Union 235–6, 240

PCIJ see Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)

Pellet, A. 271, 312

Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 92, 167, 210

Advisory Opinion on Access to German Minority Schools in Upper Silesia (1931) 129

Advisory Opinion on Certain Questions Relating to Settlers of German Origin in the Territory Ceded by Germany to Poland (1923) 210

Advisory Opinion on Railway Traffic between Lithuania and Poland (1931) 128–9

Peru 181

positivism/positive law 40, 79

pragmatism 193–4, 231, 319

process and content, tension between 30

public order treaties, succession 189–233

automatic succession doctrine see automatic succession doctrine

ipso jure succession 204, 205, 215

right to continuity 189, 191, 193, 195–203, 205, 218–20, 227–8, 230

State succession question, theory 189–94

VCSST see Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties (VCSST)

Qatar v. Bahrain case 25–6, 93–4

quorum technique 118

ratification of treaties 45, 80, 300

Rawle Kennedy case 181, 289, 309, 310

rebus sic stantibus, exception of 19–20, 21

reciprocity

and classification debate 42, 45, 47, 48

and communitarianism 84

consequences of acceptances/objections to reservations under the VCLT 263–5

in human rights treaties, absence of 60, 241–2, 246

when reacting to reservations to human rights treaties 265–70

international legal order 84–5

material 86

and question of bilateralization 84, 87, 246, 263–5

place in Vienna rules on reservations 263–70

role in law of treaties 82–8

in the treaty enforcement phase 86–7

regional human rights courts 275, 276

remote/general consent theory 126–42

decisions adopted on basis of unanimity or consensus 127–32

majority voting 133–8

and one-step processes 126–42

whether theory consistent with consensualist paradigm of Article 11VCLT 139–41

res inter alios acta maxim 201

reservations, human rights treaties

acceptances and objections, Vienna rules on consequences of 263–5

case law on reservations to optional clauses and protocols 286–94

dispute settlement clauses/protocols as fundamental object/essence of human rights treaties 292–4

exclusive versus complementary nature of dispute settlement clauses 291–2

optional versus compulsory nature of dispute settlement clauses 288–91

compatibility/permissibility/admissibility thesis 251–2, 254–5

consensualist paradigm, challenging 270–314

dialogue réservatoire314–21

and human rights bodies 271, 274, 280, 290–91, 303, 311

ICJ Advisory Opinion (1951) 236–45, 248, 271

ideal of integrity 237–8, 241, 246, 253, 255, 265, 294–5, 310

ideal of universality 238–43

introducing a subject matter lex specialis on 261–3

object and purpose test see object and purpose test

opposability thesis 252, 256

preliminary conclusions 245–8

reactions to, by contracting parties 235–6, 239–40, 243, 254–6, 278–80, 291, 305, 307, 313–15, 319–20

legal value of 254, 256, 276–83, 318–21

reciprocity, place in Vienna rules 263–70

reciprocity and bilateralization problem 264–5

Vienna rules on consequences of acceptances/objections to reservations 263–5

severability doctrine 296–314

theoretical analysis 234–7

treaty bodies versus State bodies in determining compatibility 272–86

validity, logic of 251

abandonment 315–16

Rwanda 228

scientific uncertainty 102, 115

sectoral regimes 30

Selbstverpflichtungslehre (self-limitation theory) 35, 191

self and the community, fundamental tension between 14

binary and transformational character of tension 15–16

egotism and cooperation/community 16, 17–21

self-determination 192

Serbia 226

severability doctrine 5, 296–314

see also reservations, human rights treaties

Simma, B. 72, 168, 268–9

simplified amendment procedures 116–21, 124, 125, 142

Sinclair, I., Sir 26

Slovenia 217

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) 193, 213, 219–20, 222, 223

socialization process 14, 17, 35, 66

socialization of States 83–4

soft law

advantages, as compared to treaties 77–9, 80, 82

categories 74

and communitarian discourse 79

defining and delineating from treaties 73–6

flexibility 77, 78, 79

formalism and law of treaties 90–95

and heterogeneity of States 76, 77

informal nature 77, 81

international legal order 80

non-binding engagements 75

scientific uncertainty 76–7

shift from treaties to 68, 73–82

lessons for identity of treaties 76–82

soft instruments 74, 75

turn to 81

SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974) 121, 126

sources of international law

concept 68–9

formal 68–9

material 69

shaping of treaty identity in reference to 68–82

South Africa, Mandate over South West Africa 129–30

sovereignty

and clean slate doctrine 190–91

sovereign autonomy 100, 141

sovereigntist conception of international law 72

and treaty denunciation 155

see also State sovereignty

Soviet Union (USSR) 218

State consent see consent/State consent

State intent 22, 24

esoteric and constructed intent, fluctuation between 22–7

State sovereignty 325, 327

clean slate doctrine 196, 197, 200

and consensualism 234

expression of consent to be bound 124, 140

reservations question 234–6

State volition 41, 131, 284

binary and transformational analysis 18, 19, 22, 23

see also State will

State will 3, 4, 16

bare will 5, 18, 22, 27

constraints on 18–19

formalism 89

and subjectivism 23–4

see also State volition; will theory

States

common agreement of parties 112–13

compatibility of reservations, reactions to 276–86

egoistical interests of 3, 17–18, 35, 50, 57, 83

equality 66

heterogeneity of 76, 77

intent see State intent

non-performing 50–51

participation in treaty life 7–8, 66, 174, 179, 186–8, 232–3, 247, 270, 281, 315, 317–21, 325, 327–9

socialization of 14, 17, 35, 66, 83–4

sovereignty see State sovereignty

and subjectivism 65

volition see State volition

will see State will

Stern, B. 215

subjectivism 23–4, 65

shortcomings of subjective exception to non-denunciable treaties163–4

subjective and objective tests 5

succession to public order treaties see public order treaties, succession

superposition strategy 281

symbolic struggles 38

tacit agreement/consent 91, 118–26, 162, 279

tacit amendment 5, 124, 126

teleological interpretation of treaties 60

Temeltasch case 279, 285, 286

Tomuschat, C. 151, 304

treaties

advantages 71–3

bilateral 46, 48, 50, 53, 64, 72

binding nature of 18, 19, 24

intention of parties 75–6

classification of see classification debate

‘collective interest’ 58, 62, 66–7, 81, 82, 324

communitarian aspect see communitarian considerations

concept of 4, 34–98

classification debate 34–67

deformalization 88

discursive shifts in international law influencing 70

reconstruction 34–98

traditional perceptions 2, 4, 9, 38, 53, 57, 64, 68, 82–95

consensual and contractual traits 28

disadvantages 73–82

dual hypostasis, enclosed in 34

identity see identity of treaties

institutional 57, 60

institutionalization of treaty regimes 4, 5, 7, 62, 87, 147

interpretation 60

in interwar period 36

law of see law of treaties

as law-making technique in international legal order 70

legislative versus contractual types 35–6, 37, 39, 42–7, 52–3, 54, 64, 65

multilateral 46, 48, 53, 54, 68, 265

shift from customary international law to 71–3

obligations

bilateralizable 48, 50, 51, 236, 265

human rights 49

integral 51, 60, 94

interdependent 48–9, 51

reciprocal effects of specific obligations 48

plurilateral 48

ratification see ratification of treaties

reconstruction of concept 34–98

soft content 74

soft law, shift to 68, 73–82

theoretical background see theoretical background to State treaties

traditional perceptions of concept 2, 9, 38, 53, 57, 64, 68

essential traits of ‘traditional’ concept 82–95

treaty as instrumentum (form/procedure) 5, 27–30, 54, 85

treaty as negotium (substance/content) 5, 27–30, 43, 44, 54, 85

treaty bodies, human rights see human rights bodies

treaty-making process see treaty-making process

tripartite distinction 48, 51

written form 71

treaty concept see treaties

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 187

Conference of the Parties to 174

Review Conferences (2005, 2010 and 2015) 171, 172, 187

withdrawal from 154, 167–74

treaty-making process 1, 2, 5, 7, 18, 90, 235

consensus-based 115

distinction from legislation by international organizations 147–53, 325–9

and expression of consent to be bound 99, 122–4, 126, 127, 133, 135, 142, 147, 149, 151, 153

identity of treaties, shaping in reference to other sources of international law 71–3, 80, 81

stricto sensu127, 146

treaty as negotium versus treaty as instrumentum27–9

Triepel, H. 35, 40–41, 42

Trinidad and Tobago 289, 310

withdrawal from ACHR 174, 178

Ulfstein, G. 147

unilateralism 23, 66

United Nations Charter 163

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 127, 137–8, 267

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 121, 144, 148, 149

United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) 61, 239, 267, 273

United Nations Security Council (UNSC) 169, 170, 221, 247–8

Ušakov, N. 201

VCLT see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)

Venezuela, withdrawal from ACHR 174, 178

vested or acquired rights, theory of 209–12

veto power 249

Vienna Conference on the Law of Treaties 105, 162, 252–3, 263

Committee of the Whole 202–3

Vienna Convention on Consular Rights, Optional Protocol 186

Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties (VCSST) 2, 189

Article 2 195

Article 4 189

Article 11 196, 210

Article 12 196, 210, 211

Article 17 189

Article 20 197–8

Article 22 197

Article 23 197–8

Article 34 189, 196, 206–7, 227, 229

exceptions provided in 206

clean slate doctrine see clean slate doctrine

formalism 193, 206

historical background 194–6

relevant issues arising from 196–206

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations 2

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 2

Article 5 55–6

Article 11

‘any other means’ caveat in 104–7, 116

and consensualist paradigm 122–6, 152–3

doctrinal views on the open-endedness of 106

expression of consent to be bound 104–13, 116, 122–6, 131

flexibility only on condition of common agreement of States parties 112–13

formality, presumption of 108–12

    acte contraire doctrine 108–9

North Sea Continental Shelf dictum109–12

and opting-out technique 122–6

traditional contours 107–13

whether formalistic in nature 106–7

and written form 107–8

Article 19 253–4, 258

Article 20 263, 268, 318

Article 21 254–5, 263, 265, 267–8, 296–7

and classification debate 46

denunciation, rules on (Articles 54 and 56) 154, 155, 157–67, 172, 175, 179, 185

appraisal of rules 163–7

emergence of an ‘objective’ exception 164–5

emergence of rules 157–63

impossible streamlining (Article 56) 165–7

shortcomings of subjective exception 163–4

general regime 30

residual/dispositive regime 3, 29, 46, 55, 88, 267

Vienna regime 2, 5, 30, 65, 88, 91, 251, 328

see also Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties (VCSST); Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations; Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)

voluntarist theories 35

voting 122, 127, 131

majority 116, 123, 133–8, 139, 141, 142, 148, 149, 151

one-step process and theory of remote/general consent 123, 126, 133–8, 139

supermajority 136

unanimous 118, 127–32, 249

veto power 249

Waldock, H. 52, 161, 196–7, 249, 261–2

will theory 15

acts of will 39–40

autonomy of will 24, 42, 64, 100, 106, 113, 141, 190, 191

bare will 5, 18, 22, 27

collective will 18

declarations of will 41, 100–101

external manifestations of will 101

merger of wills 65

reciprocity 83

State will see State will

subordination of individual will to the Gemeinwille42

withdrawal from treaties

and collective interest treaties 186, 324

and contracting parties’ reactions to 156, 160, 167, 174, 176, 188

current discourse on 167–86

formalism, return to 142

general rule of non-denunciability 163

Harvard Draft on the Law of Treaties (1935) 154, 158, 161

human rights treaties 174, 175–80

non-denunciability, exception of 159

optional clauses and protocols 180–86

optional versus compulsory jurisdictional clauses 181

and pacta sunt servanda principle 156, 157

presumption of non-denunciability 162, 177, 179

prohibition of 5

State consent in 154–88

theory 155–7

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 167–74

unconditional right of 159

VCLT rules on denunciation (Articles 54 and 56) 154, 155, 157–67, 172, 175, 179, 185

appraisal of rules 163–7

emergence of an ‘objective’ exception 164–5

emergence of rules 157–63

impossible streamlining (Article 56) 165–7

shortcomings of subjective exception 163–4

whether participatory solution to conundrum of 186–8

World Court 128

World Health Organization (WHO) 119