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The International Law of State Responsibility

Robert Kolb

This highly readable book examines the law of State responsibility, presenting it as a fundamental aspect of public international law. Covering the key aspects of the topic, it combines a clear overview with use of specific case studies in order to provide a deeper understanding.
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Index

Robert Kolb

abandonment 13, 23–4

absolute compulsion 122, 129

absolute responsibility 18, 109, 113

abuse 5, 86, 108, 116, 128, 134, 156, 158

acceptance of responsibility 227

accomplices 9, 92, 99, 121

accountability 232

actions

diplomatic 185–6, 269

military 105, 123, 222

private 92–3, 99–100

unilateral 147, 206

acts

attribution 72–4, 93, 98, 106, 232

composite 53, 241, 255

of insurrectional movements 93–9

internationally wrongful see internationally wrongful acts

of persons acting in a private capacity 99–101

private 85–8, 91–2, 100, 202

ultra vires27, 80, 85–8, 107

unilateral 35, 49–50, 114, 135

unlawful 2–4, 7, 11, 42, 44, 109, 160–1, 175

ad hoc endorsement 88–93

admissibility 26, 165, 195

of claims 197–8, 247, 262

agents 66–7, 72–3, 76, 78–81, 84–5, 125–6, 202, 253–4

State 107, 110, 126–7, 129, 169

aggression 54–5, 82, 118, 216, 225

aggrieved States 5, 8, 10, 92, 148, 154–5, 171, 177

Ago, R. 10–11, 28, 41–4, 50, 52, 54, 85, 126

aircraft 51, 122, 126–7

Alabama arbitration 30–2, 62, 65

aliens 7, 10, 42, 44, 47, 185–6, 192–3, 196–7

rights 6, 196

treatment 9–10, 22, 28, 42, 52, 133

ancillary responsibility 215–30

Anzilotti, D. 6, 11, 99

apartheid 53–5

apparent authority 86–7, 107–8

application

general 112, 135, 165

subsidiary 221

Arangio-Ruiz, G. 28–9

arbitral tribunals 11, 60, 67, 90, 132, 151, 153, 197

arbitration 9, 29–32, 62–3, 194

arbitrators 13, 149, 151, 156, 162–3, 166, 168, 170

Argentina 132, 203

armed attack 82, 118, 120–1, 130

armed conflicts 16, 62, 83, 96–8, 102–6, 131, 155, 174

law of 84, 95–6, 98, 116, 119, 131, 133–4, 138–9

non-international 98, 105

armed forces 27, 57, 72, 84–5, 88, 103, 141, 175

armed groups 16–17, 77, 79, 81, 83, 95–8, 104–7, 118–19

armed reprisals 119, 174

arrest 10, 37–8

Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ASR) 55–9, 71–4, 90–9, 127–37, 156–9, 171–3, 177–84, 218–22

assurances 151–2, 249, 263

appropriate 151, 244, 259

of non-repetition 149, 151–2, 171, 244, 249, 259, 263

attempted circumvention of responsibility 225–7

attribution 3, 9–11, 20–1, 34–5, 70–108, 223–4, 232, 240

acts of insurrectional movements 93–9

acts of persons acting in a private capacity 99–101

by ad hoc endorsement 88–93

of conduct 3, 89, 238, 254

effectiveness principle and de facto organs 78–83

ex post 91, 98

general issues 70–4

good faith and legitimate expectations 107–8

issues 11, 73, 75

main principles 74–83

organs placed at the disposal of another State 83–4

renvoi to municipal law for de jure organs 76–7

rules of 72–3, 104–7

special rules of 72–3

ultra vires acts 107–8

ultra vires and private acts 85–8, 107–8

under direction and control 102–7

authority 75, 79, 85–6, 90, 108, 239, 250, 254

apparent 86–7, 107–8

governmental 74–5, 79, 83–5, 239

official 79, 239

authorizations 19, 113, 117, 136, 140–7, 223, 256

available local remedies 191, 195, 272

bad faith 157, 195, 201

belligerency, recognition of 96

belligerent reprisals 177, 182

belligerents 30–1, 62, 116, 139

bilateral treaties 61, 205

Bosnian Serbs 102–3

burden of proof 18

capacity 74, 77, 85, 89, 141, 143, 239

official 86, 107, 254

care, standard of 35, 63, 63–6, 226

case law 11, 122, 124, 128, 164, 181, 185

causality 124, 131, 137, 161, 164

causation 18–19, 109, 157, 161

cessation 18, 20–1, 39, 149–51, 170–1, 173, 249–50, 263–5

duty of 51, 149–50

chain of actions 51, 53

China 59, 90, 170

circumstances, exceptional 130, 154

circumstances precluding responsibility 110, 115

circumstances precluding wrongfulness (CPWs) 18, 20–1, 109–47, 157, 206, 220–1, 242–4, 258

conflict between Security Council authorization and treaty obligation 140–7

consent 114–17

countermeasures/reprisals 120–1

distress 125–7, 243, 257–8

equitable compensation for material loss 137

force majeure 121–5

general issues 109–14

military necessity 138–40

peremptory norms as limit for plea 135–6

self-defence 118–20

state of necessity 128–34

civil responsibility 14, 18, 39, 153

types 18–20

civil wars 17, 30, 79, 98

civilians 96, 177

claims 30–2, 48–50, 148–9, 171–3, 185–93, 247–9, 262–3, 269–71

nationality of 191, 248, 262

clean hands doctrine 198–9

CM see countermeasures

codification 6–7, 9, 27–30, 110, 112–13, 123, 126, 129

coerced State 220–1, 241, 256

coercing State 220–1, 241, 266

coercion 5, 84, 220–1, 225, 231, 241, 256, 266

collective countermeasures by States other than injured State 203–5

collective interests 56, 143, 171, 248, 263

collective measures 203–4

collective responsibility 26, 177, 215–31

collective unlawful conduct 215–21

Member State responsibility for conduct of an international organization 225–8

responsibility for conduct of Member States within an international organization 221–4

collective security 143, 146

collective unlawful conduct 215–21

command and control 222

compensation 88–9, 137, 154–71, 199, 215–16, 244–6, 248, 258–60

amount of 153, 216

equitable 137

full 54

competence 77, 226, 266

complete dependence 102, 104

complicity 9, 23, 58, 83, 92, 106–7, 215–17

composite acts 53, 241, 255

compulsion, absolute 122, 129

concession contracts 90, 115, 133

concessionaires 228–9

conduct 35–46, 49–53, 88–94, 113–15, 132–4, 225–8, 238–40, 253–4

attribution of 3, 89, 238, 254

endorsement of 88–9

of Member States 142, 215, 221

obligations of 41, 44

of organs 238–9, 254

standard of 38–41, 43

consent 7, 110, 112–17, 133–4, 136, 204, 242, 256–7

consenting States 114–15, 117

constitutive elements of state responsibility 18, 20–4, 122

consular agents/personnel 101, 180, 250

continuity 269, 271

continuity of nationality 189–90, 269–70

contravention of instructions 239, 254

control 79, 81–2, 84, 95–6, 102–6, 219–20, 224–5, 241–2

and direction 80–3, 102–7, 220–1

effective see effective control

financial 190, 270

loss of 83, 122, 126

operational 221

overall see overall control

cooperation 34, 58, 66, 217, 232

agreements 152, 205

corporations 80, 190–1, 270–1

costs 154, 199

procedural 167–8

countermeasures 4, 120, 173, 204–5, 242, 249–50, 257, 263–5

and Art 60 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 205–8

circumstances precluding wrongfulness 120–1

collective see collective countermeasures by States other than injured State

legal effects of responsibility 173–84

proportionality 180, 264

and reactions to breach of ICJ mandatory provisional measures 208–9

and reparation 4–6

taking 3, 249–50, 264–5

CPWs see circumstances precluding wrongfulness

Crawford, J. 21, 43, 49, 56, 85, 88, 128, 185

Crimea 59, 203

crimes 24, 51, 53, 55–6, 68–9

criminalization 56, 68

Cuba 27–8

customary international law 100, 104, 113, 117–18, 145–6, 184, 187, 192

customary law 11, 58, 71, 206–7

damages 18–21, 34–5, 153–6, 159, 163–5, 195–7, 244–5, 259–60

payment of 90, 134

punitive 166–7, 216

de facto agents 83, 222

de facto organs 74, 77–8, 106, 222

de jure organs 72, 78

renvoi to municipal law for 76–7

denial of justice 9, 23, 52, 77

dependence, complete 102, 104

detention, unlawful 53, 150

detention of persons 51, 54

diligence 19, 31–2, 39, 62, 64–6, 163

diplomatic action 185–6, 269

diplomatic personnel 38, 99, 123, 175, 192–3

diplomatic premises 89–90, 100

diplomatic protection 10, 115, 163, 167, 183, 185, 185–202, 268–72

claim of IWA 186–7

and clean hands doctrine 198–9

exhaustion of local remedies 191–8

nationality link 187–91

no waiver 198

direction and control 80–3, 102–7, 220–1

discretion 42–3, 45, 147, 162, 167, 200

discretionary power 176, 199, 201

discretionary rights 182

discrimination 51, 53, 204

dispute settlement, procedures 208, 249–50, 264–5

disputes 8–9, 26, 28–30, 32, 67–8, 194, 198, 208–9

distress 110, 112–13, 125, 125–7, 129, 137, 243, 257–8

dominant nationality, test 188–9

double wrongfulness, criterion 220–1

DP see diplomatic protection 191

dualism 47

due diligence 20, 23, 39–41, 62–5, 101, 107, 222

definition 64–5

duties 19, 40, 65–6, 92, 95, 99–101, 108, 161

elements 65–6

history 62–3

obligations 39–40, 62–6, 95, 106, 226

positive obligations 16

standard of care 63–4

duties 3–6, 19–21, 38–9, 56–8, 125–6, 133–5, 148–52, 164–5

of cessation 51, 149–50

due diligence 19, 40, 65–6, 92, 95, 99–101, 108, 161

of reparation 8, 51, 105, 148

effective control 71, 80–1, 118, 220, 222–3, 254

and overall control 102–7

test 81, 104, 106, 219, 224

effective nationality 189

effectiveness 69, 74, 78, 85, 104, 177, 222

embassies 38, 40, 89, 91, 99–100, 155

emergency 126, 132, 139, 204

empowerments 75–6

endorsement 50

ad hoc 88–93

ex post73, 89, 91–2, 99, 101

enforcement 5, 139, 141, 176, 183, 221

equilibrium 30, 153, 180

equitable compensation for material loss 137

equitable exceptions 154, 189–90, 193, 195

equity 86, 124, 137, 153, 156–7, 163–4

role of 168

essential interests 128–32, 243, 258

estoppel 25, 35, 196, 228

Eurotunnel228–30

events, unforeseen 122, 242, 257

ex gratia, remedies 191

ex gratia payments 90

ex post attribution 91, 98

ex post endorsement 73, 89, 91–2, 99, 101

exceptional circumstances 130, 154

exceptions 48, 112–14, 117, 123–4, 134, 138–40, 188–90, 195

equitable 154, 189–90, 193, 195

excess 86, 115, 119, 121, 164, 239, 254

exemptions 72, 138–9, 221

exhaustion of local remedies 9, 42, 44, 183, 248, 262, 271

diplomatic protection 191–8

expectations, legitimate 37, 86, 89, 107–8, 201, 228

expropriation 10, 53–4, 155, 183

creeping 51, 54

extraterritorial jurisdiction 71, 106

facts, legal 2–3, 109

fault 9, 14–15, 18–19, 22–4, 35, 92, 163–4, 198–9

requirement of 14, 23, 39

responsibility for 18–19

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia see FRY

financial control 190, 270

force

armed 27, 57, 72, 84–5, 88, 103, 141, 175

irresistible 121–2, 242, 257

force majeure 110–11, 113, 121, 121–5, 127, 220–1, 242, 257

foreign citizens 63, 87, 185

foreigners 63, 87, 101, 187, 231

formal apologies 169, 246, 260

formative stage 11, 13–15

France 66–7, 167, 203–4, 228

FRY (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) 98, 102–3, 204–5

functional protection 185, 202

functions 2, 65, 70–1, 143, 145, 253–4, 258, 263–4

public 74–5, 83

fundamental norms 59, 108, 136, 184, 200

Gabcikovo-Nagymaros128, 132, 164

general application 112, 135, 165

general international law 5–6, 50, 56–7, 72–3, 135, 145–6, 246, 261

general rules 26–9, 60, 73, 101, 149, 158, 168, 230

Geneva Conventions 88, 95–6, 116

genocide 39–40, 51, 53–5, 64, 98, 102, 135, 171

good faith 86, 89, 107–8, 124, 152, 164, 208–9, 228

governmental authority 74–5, 79, 83–5, 239

governmental power 94, 97

grave and imminent peril 128–30, 243, 258

gravity 54, 118–19, 180–1, 231, 250, 264

Greece 90

gross or systematic failure 56, 246, 261

groups of states 170, 247–8, 261, 263

guarantees 2, 42, 44, 196–7, 244, 249, 259, 263

of non-repetition 149, 151–4

Guatemala 210

Hague Regulations 84, 134, 138–9

Heffter, A.G. 10

history 1–33, 143

home State 115, 186, 197, 199, 222

human rights 16, 42, 53, 102, 166, 186, 195, 204

law 179, 186, 226

reparation 210–14

treaties 38, 51, 198, 201, 211

violations 205, 212–13, 218

humiliating forms 169–70, 246, 260

Hungary 131–2, 137

ICC (International Criminal Court) 16

ICJ (International Court of Justice) 36, 80–1, 104–6, 128–9, 131–2, 167–8, 201–2, 208

ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia) 16, 81, 103–6

IHL (international humanitarian law) 27, 88, 116, 131, 138–9, 179, 206

ILC (International Law Commission) 10–12, 29–30, 56–7, 89–91, 127–9, 153, 156–8, 172

codification of state responsibility 27–30

illegality 4, 34, 86, 109–10, 177

immaterial damage 169

imminent peril 128–30, 243, 258

immunities 16, 71, 89, 123, 202

impossibility 123, 127, 156

material 125, 158

of performance 111, 124

imputation 10–11, 71, 109, 197

incorporation 46, 191, 270–1

independence 46, 157, 195, 202

individual responsibility 16, 251, 267

individuals 16, 23, 70, 99–100, 104–6, 185, 187, 210–11

private 79, 89, 91, 106, 161

injured States 148–9, 155–8, 163–5, 170–7, 180–3, 215–16, 246–50, 260–5

injuring States 149, 151–3, 155, 165, 167, 207, 213, 216

injury 169–70, 182, 185, 189–92, 195–7, 244–6, 259–60, 269–72

instructions 79–81, 85–8, 104–5, 151, 239, 254

contravention of 239, 254

State’s 80, 102

insurgents 17, 94–5, 98

insurrectional movements 16, 93–8, 239

insurrections 63, 73, 94–5, 97–8

intent 35, 218, 221

special 39

intention 14, 90, 124, 181–2

interest rates 246, 260

interests

collective 56, 143, 171, 248, 263

essential 128–32, 243, 258

internal law 45, 47–8, 72, 74, 76, 78, 238, 244

internal legislation 62, 65, 151, 156

internal remedies 197–8

international community 128, 131, 243, 245, 247–8, 258–9, 261, 263

International Court of Justice see ICJ

international crimes 28–9, 54–60, 166, 180, 201, 203, 216

Swiss argument against international crimes of the State 68–9

International Criminal Court see ICC

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia see ICTY

international humanitarian law see IHL

International Law Commission see ILC

international legal obligations 36, 39, 46–7, 99, 120–2, 130, 186–7

international legal order 13, 47, 72, 110, 177, 210

international legal personality 15, 202, 217, 253

international legal rights 185, 196, 198

international legality 8, 23, 109, 133, 171

international obligations 45–8, 60–2, 125–6, 128–9, 131–2, 187, 240–3, 253–9

international organizations 56, 84, 215, 217, 221, 224–7, 251, 253–67

conduct of Member States 142, 215, 221

Member State responsibility for conduct 225–8

responsibility 17, 114, 222, 252–3

for conduct of Member States within 221–4

responsible 259–65

international practice 24–5, 82–3, 85, 95, 97, 106–7, 153, 155

international responsibility 15–17, 20–2, 45–8, 85, 231–2, 244–7, 256, 266–7

and state responsibility 15–17

international society 14, 47, 174, 176, 183, 232

internationally wrongful acts (IWAs) 34–69, 109–12, 148–55, 169–76, 180–7, 215–19, 244–6, 262–7

adoption of legislation contrary to international law 60–2

breach and temporal issues 48–54

conduct 38–45

due diligence obligations 62–6

general issues 34–5

gravity of breach 54–60

primary obligation still running 66–8

qualification only through international law 45–8

violation of a legally applicable obligation 35–7

interpretation 43–5, 53–4, 61–2, 109, 122–3, 142, 144–5, 229–30

inter-temporal principle 49–50

invasion 83, 204, 219

inviolability 180, 250, 264

invocation of responsibility 247–9, 261, 263

Iran 91, 100

Iranian State 90–1, 100

Iraq 135, 164, 204, 219

irresistible force 121–2, 242, 257

irresponsibility 24, 108

Israel 91, 132

IWAs see internationally wrongful acts

joint organs 165, 230

jurisdiction 29, 31, 63, 73, 103, 165, 223

extraterritorial 71, 106

jus cogens55, 57, 136, 192, 200

norms 48, 57, 116, 131, 201, 217

justification 112, 116, 121–2, 124, 130–1, 134, 142, 145

Kelsen, H. 5–6

knowledge 32, 218–19, 221, 241, 255–6, 265–6

law and responsibility 1–2

law of armed conflicts 84, 95–6, 98, 116, 119, 131, 133–4, 138–9

see also IHL

Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC) 43, 73

law of treaties 29, 114, 130, 205–8

lawful measures 137, 242, 250, 265

lawfulness 3, 58

laws of war 33, 133, 139

legal basis 50, 145, 213

legal consequences 1–3, 26, 72, 76, 244, 258–9

legal effects of responsibility 148–214

cessation 150–1

collective countermeasures by States other than injured State 203–5

compensation 159–69

countermeasures 173–84

and Art 60 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 205–8

and reactions to breach of ICJ mandatory provisional measures 208–9

diplomatic and functional protection 185–202

general aspects 148

guarantees of non-repetition 149, 151–4

reparation 149–73

in human rights law 210–14

restitution 154–8

satisfaction 169–73

satisfaction ex gratia210

legal facts 2–3, 109

legal norms 1–2, 34–5, 109, 136

legal obligations 1, 5, 36, 45, 47, 129–30, 141, 226

international 36, 39, 46–7, 99, 120–2, 130, 186–7

legal order 1–3, 13, 15, 38, 40, 46–7, 176, 182

international 13, 47, 72, 110, 177, 210

legal personality, international 15, 202, 217, 253

legal persons 15, 70, 185, 217, 269–72

legal position, subjective 35–6, 140, 144, 147, 208

legal systems 11, 18, 24, 32, 110

legality, international 8, 23, 109, 133, 171

legitimate expectations 37, 86, 89, 107–8, 201, 228

letters of reprisals 9, 231

lex specialis31, 37, 49, 73, 123, 127, 206, 209

principle 146, 230

liability 7, 18, 25, 34, 93, 165, 172

strict 34, 99, 109, 125

life and limb 125–7, 129

local remedies 9, 42, 191–8, 271–2

exhaustion 9, 42, 44, 183, 191–3, 195–7, 262, 271

Loizidou case 104, 106

LOSC see Law of the Sea Convention

loss of control 83, 122, 126

loss of profits 159, 162–3, 245, 260

losses 90, 95, 137, 153, 159–65, 167–8, 180, 248

material 137, 155, 165, 244, 258

lump sum agreements 136, 155

maintenance of peace 55, 143, 145, 231

material damage 168–9

material impossibility 125, 158

material losses 155, 165, 244, 258

equitable compensation for 137

measures

Collective 203–4

lawful 137, 242, 250, 265

provisional 182–3, 208–9

unilateral 4–6, 10, 37, 56, 61, 177

merits 10, 31, 60, 153, 187, 196–7, 199

stage 187, 196

Mexico 63, 87, 90

military actions 105, 123, 222

military necessity 131, 133, 138–40, 206

military operations 106, 138, 161

mines 165, 216

money, sums of 155, 159, 162, 166, 169, 213

moral damage 21, 159

moral persons see legal persons

municipal law 13–14, 42, 46–8, 71–4, 76–8, 87, 116, 200

analogies with 13–15

obligations 45–6

rules of 72, 188

nationality 187–91, 196–7, 199, 202, 269–72

of claims 191, 248, 262

continuity of 189–90, 269–70

effective 189

link 187–91

multiple 188

State of 187–91, 196–7, 202, 269–72

nationals 185–6, 192, 197, 201, 270–1

natural persons 18, 80, 187, 269, 272

necessity 112–13, 127–31, 133–4, 138–40, 206, 208, 243, 258

argument 129–30, 133–4, 140

invoking 128, 131, 133, 243, 258

military 131, 133, 138–9, 206

secondary 134

situation of 243, 258

special 127, 134

state of 27, 110, 112–13, 125, 127–34, 137, 139, 157–8

negative obligations 38–9

negligence 14, 18, 41, 62, 64–5, 124, 226

negotiations 31, 151, 186, 216

neutrality 9, 31–2, 62–3, 119

New Zealand 66–7, 167, 203

Nicaragua 102, 222, 232

non-international armed conflicts 98, 105

non-repetition 152, 170, 244, 259

assurances and guarantees of 244, 249, 259, 263

assurances of 149, 151–2, 171, 244, 249, 259, 263

non-retroactivity 37, 50, 98

non-State entities 16

non-use of force 8, 57–8, 133, 136

normative conflict 143–4

norms 18–19, 35–6, 38, 42, 47–8, 56, 58, 61–2

fundamental 59, 108, 136, 184, 200

legal 1–2, 34–5, 109, 136

peremptory 24, 56–8, 114, 117, 132, 135–6, 243, 246

primary 36–9, 41, 43–4, 61–2, 65–6, 68, 134, 136

secondary 28, 65, 110–12, 134

obligations

breach of 2, 14, 57, 177

of conduct 41, 44

of due diligence 39–40, 62–6, 95, 106, 226

international 45–8, 60–2, 125–6, 128–9, 131–2, 187, 240–3, 253–9

negative 38–9

new 3–5, 7, 50, 98, 148, 176

positive 38–9, 58

of prevention 40, 43, 51

of result 41–2, 44–5, 52, 61, 196

sources of 24–5

treaty 37, 48, 140, 144, 207

occupied territory 84, 131–2

official authorities 79, 239

officials 66, 85–6, 108

omissions 38, 51–3, 80–1, 94–5, 99–101, 229–30, 241, 255

operational control 221

organic structure 74, 76, 78

legal 73

organs

de facto74, 77–8, 106, 222

de jure see de jure organs

joint 165, 230

official 103–4

State 42, 72, 83–4, 91, 102, 104, 116, 127

overall control 81, 118, 222

and effective control 102–7

test 103–4

PCIJ (Permanent Court of International Justice) 2, 13, 153–4, 186, 193, 209

peace 31–2, 55, 63, 143, 145, 205, 231

maintenance of 55, 143, 145, 231

peaceful settlement 8–9, 36, 179, 185, 269

peacekeeping operations 223–4

peremptory norms 24, 56–8, 114, 117, 132, 135–6, 243, 246

peremptory norms of general international law 135, 243, 246, 249, 258, 261, 264

performance 75, 121–2, 244, 247, 249, 259, 261, 263–4

impossibility of 111, 124

peril 127, 243, 258

imminent 128–30, 243, 258

Permanent Court of International Justice see PCIJ

personnel, diplomatic 38, 99, 123, 175, 192–3

persons

acting in a private capacity 99–101

legal 15, 70, 185, 217, 269, 271–2

natural 18, 80, 187, 269, 272

stateless 190, 201, 270

plurality of injured states 172, 248, 262

police officers 86–7

positive obligations 38–9, 58

positivists 11, 28

power 3, 75, 96–8, 146–7, 176–7, 199, 208, 222–4

discretionary 176, 199, 201

governmental 94, 97

precedence 127, 144, 146, 198, 209

predecessor States 95, 190, 269–70

prejudice 215–16, 242–3, 247–8, 250–1, 256, 258–9, 263, 267

presumptions 45, 73, 123, 152, 189, 226–7, 229

prevention 7, 19, 32, 34, 39–41, 100, 108

obligation of 40, 43, 51

primacy 111, 140–1, 144–7, 155, 157

primary norms 36–9, 41, 43–4, 61–2, 65–6, 68, 134, 136

primary obligations 6–8, 43, 45, 51, 112, 134–5, 148–51, 179

primary rules 7, 19, 53, 112–13, 117–18, 140–1, 144–5, 206–7

of international law 82, 107, 133, 232

prisoners of war 138–9

private action 92–3, 99–100

private acts 85–8, 91–2, 100, 202

private capacity, persons acting in a 99–101

private individuals 79, 89, 91, 106, 161

private justice 174, 176–7

private persons 38, 90, 92, 100–1

procedural costs 167–8

profits 111, 123, 125–6, 157

loss of 159, 162–3, 245, 260

proof, burden of 18

property 53, 138, 201

proportionality 156, 176, 180–2, 209, 250

countermeasures 180, 264

protected persons 27, 99, 116, 126

protection 65–6, 85, 87, 116, 199–202, 248–9, 263–4, 272

diplomatic 10, 115, 163, 167, 183, 185–202, 268–72

functional 185, 202

protective measures 99–100

provisional measures 182–3, 208–9

public functions 74–5, 83

punitive damages 166–7, 216

quantum

of compensation 24, 35, 164

of damages 54, 172

Rainbow Warrior case 25, 36, 66–8, 151, 167, 232

rebels 16, 95–6

reciprocity 27

redress 32–3, 52, 195–7, 213, 221, 272

measures of 32–3, 214

reforms 146–7, 204

refugees 190, 201, 270

reliance

detrimental 228

on responsibility 227–8

remedies 42, 44, 53–4, 152, 154–5, 170–3, 192–7, 205–6

ex gratia191

individual 186

internal 197–8

legal 157, 271

local see local remedies

renunciation 92, 114, 194

renvoi48, 78, 85, 88

for de jure organs 76–7

reparation 2–8, 20–1, 110, 135–6, 148–74, 244–6, 259–60, 262–5

claims for 26, 182, 197

and countermeasures 4–6

duty of 8, 51, 105, 148

form 247, 262

full 152

in human rights law 210–14

repatriation 66, 169

reprisals 3, 5–6, 9–10, 27, 32–3, 120, 174–5, 179

letters of 9, 231

responsibility

absolute 18, 109, 113

acceptance 227

ancillary 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 227, 229

attachment of 113, 222

attempted circumvention 225–7

circumstances precluding 110, 115

civil see civil responsibility

collective 26, 177, 219, 229–31

consequences of 2, 7, 18, 20, 28, 35–6, 111, 113

individual 16, 251, 267

international see international responsibility

invocation 247–9, 261, 263

issues 2, 9, 29, 32, 35

joint 230

and law 1–2

legal 2, 36, 102, 232

legal nature 2–4

private law 15, 87

solidary 229

and sovereignty 12–13

special legal regimes 26–7

ultra vires87

under classical international law 32–3

responsible international organizations 259–65

restitution 5, 53–4, 149–51, 153–9, 169–71, 211, 245–6, 259–60

in kind 153, 155, 213

retorsions 33, 175–6

retroactivity, non-retroactivity 37, 50, 98

rights

secondary 92, 153, 173

subjective 171, 173

risk 38, 41, 62, 66, 122–5, 138, 144, 152

responsibility for 105

Russia 59, 203

sanctions 1, 3, 5, 45, 47, 59, 169, 176

satisfaction 21, 23, 149, 152, 169–73, 211–13, 245–6, 259–60

ex gratia210

saving clauses 61, 122, 137, 183–4

SD see self-defence

secondary necessity 134

secondary norms 28, 65, 110–12, 134

secondary obligations 5–8, 10, 157

weak 57

secondary rights 92, 153, 173

secondary rules 7, 10, 23, 34, 36, 82–3, 112–13, 143–4

security 55, 75, 205, 229

collective 143, 146

Security Council 58, 117, 140–4, 146–7, 150, 176, 184, 203–4

authorizations 141, 144

self-defence (SD) 82, 90, 110, 113, 117–21, 129, 136–7, 257

self-determination 55, 58, 136

self-help 121, 148, 174

Serbia 90, 98

settlement, peaceful 8–9, 36, 179, 185, 269

shareholders 190–1, 271

ships 30, 37, 62, 122, 126, 133, 137, 272

slave trade 37, 49

soft law 2, 36, 232

solidary responsibility 229

sources of obligations 24–5

South Africa 185, 201, 204

sovereignty 22–3, 59, 176, 192, 197, 212

and responsibility 12–13

state 12–13

space objects 19–20

special intent 39

special legal regimes of responsibility 26–7

special necessities 127, 134

special rules 26, 190, 198, 217, 229–30, 251, 267, 272

of attribution 72–3

stability

economic 156–7

political 158

standard of care 35, 63, 63–6, 226

standard of conduct 38–41, 43

State agents 107, 110, 126–7, 129, 169

state of necessity 27, 110, 112–13, 125, 127–34, 137, 139, 157–8

State organs 42, 72, 83–4, 91, 102, 104, 116, 127

state sovereignty 12–13

State succession 90, 92, 190, 206

stateless persons 190, 201, 270

States

aggrieved 5, 8, 10, 92, 148, 154–5, 171, 177

coerced 220–1, 241, 256

coercing 220–1, 241, 266

consenting 114–15, 117

groups of 170, 247–8, 261, 263

home 115, 186, 197, 199, 222

injured 148–9, 155–8, 163–5, 170–7, 180–3, 215–16, 246–50, 260–5

injuring 149, 151–3, 155, 165, 167, 207, 213, 216

of nationality 187–91, 196–7, 202, 269–72

predecessor 95, 190, 269–70

territorial 41, 82, 94–5, 98–100, 110, 119, 192

third 121, 172, 178, 188–9, 199, 202, 216, 221

wrongdoing 5, 8, 10, 18, 21, 114, 155–6, 165

strict conditions 92, 109, 130, 148, 177, 206

strict liability 34, 99, 109, 125

structure, organic 74, 76, 78

subjective legal positions 35–6, 140, 144, 147, 208

subjective requirements 219, 221

subjective rights 171, 173

subsidiary responsibility 262

succession, State 90, 92, 190, 206

Suriname 204–5

Switzerland 56, 61, 68, 84, 100, 200, 203, 218

systematic failure 56, 246, 261

Tadic case 102–3

Tehran case 90, 100

temporal scope 54, 66, 232

territorial integrity 7, 38, 112, 116, 122, 126–7, 133

territorial space 122, 169

territorial State 41, 82, 94–5, 98–100, 110, 119, 192

territory 62–5, 82–3, 93–4, 96, 117, 119–20, 190, 193–4

occupied 84, 131–2

terrorist groups 82, 133

third States 121, 172, 178, 188–9, 199, 202, 216, 221

threats 66, 177, 205, 249, 264

tort 5, 9, 40, 52, 195, 197

torture 52, 58

treaty obligations 37, 48, 140, 144, 207

Treaty of Canterbury 228–9

Treaty of Washington 31

Triepel, H. 11, 99

triggering mechanisms 14–15

Uganda 85, 203

ultimate control 224

ultra vires acts 27, 80, 85–8, 107

ultra vires responsibility 87

ultra-hazardous activities 18, 20, 109

unforeseen events 122, 242, 257

UNGA (UN General Assembly) 20, 27, 29–30, 136, 143

unilateral action 147, 206

unilateral acts 35, 49–50, 114, 135

unilateral measures 4–6, 10, 37, 56, 61, 177

unitary nature of state responsibility 24–5

United Kingdom 17, 30–1, 90, 97, 133, 165, 203–4, 228

United Nations 140–1, 143, 237, 242, 249, 251–2, 264, 267–8

General Assembly see UNGA

Security Council 58, 117, 140–4, 146–7, 150, 176, 184, 203–4

United States 10, 16, 30–1, 58, 90, 102, 203–4, 210

unlawful acts 2–4, 7, 11, 42, 44, 109, 160–1, 175

unlawful conduct 2, 86, 131, 182

unlawful detention 53, 150

unlawfulness 7, 112–13, 135

VCDR see Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

VCLT see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

victims 87, 129–30, 136, 153, 199, 211–13

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (VCDR) 39, 44, 89, 100, 123

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 48, 55, 115–16, 124, 130, 135, 205–8, 211

waiver of claims 110, 115

Washington Rules 31

without prejudice clauses 137, 142, 172

wrongdoing State 5, 8, 10, 18, 21, 114, 155–6, 165

wrongful acts see internationally wrongful acts

wrongfulness 112–13, 128, 135, 175, 206, 242–3, 256–8

Yeager case 83, 104, 106