Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Giving Behaviours and Social Cohesion

How People Who ‘Give’ Make Better Communities

Lorna Zischka

‘Giving’ time and money to the community indicates the existence of relationships that draw people together, and ‘who people give to’ indicates how inclusive these relational networks are. Using UK data for the analysis, Zischka argues that a person’s willingness to ‘give' is not only influenced by social cohesion; it also helps to generate social cohesion. For thriving communities, we therefore need to consider our ‘giving’ as well as our ‘getting’.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Lorna Zischka

Acemoglu 9, 22
adaptation 34, 16, 31
age 34, 47, 65, 72, 80, 84, 889, 968, 11819, 1223, 1267, 1289, 135, 143, 146, 170, 178
agency 25, 143
see also choice
Aknin 94, 157
altruism 256, 46, 568, 66, 78, 195, 204, 206
Andreoni 256, 39, 41, 42, 94, 128, 157
Ariely 11, 14, 23, 170, 195, 204
Ashcroft 163, 183, 191, 202
ask (for help) 40, 47, 54, 57, 165, 168
see also giving motivation
aspiration 5, 47, 191
attitudes 19, 2429, 33, 34, 436, 478, 569, 74, 80, 100, 120, 129, 130, 183, 190, 191, 198, 201, 203
and giving 4041, 489, 61, 11617, 1336, 180
see also altruism; giving motivations; self-interest
aware 4, 16, 38, 40, 47, 150
Bardsley 13, 267, 164, 182
Bartolini 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 28, 155, 179, 196
Bekkers 40, 41, 47, 48, 169
Berkshire 6, 65, 81, 11112, 156, 202, 204
Bowles 8, 9, 27, 58, 195, 203
British Household Panel Survey 37, 84, 13742, 157, 18990
Bruni 12, 15
Cambridge Prosociality and Wellbeing lab 28, 55, 75, 157
capabilities 194
causality 478, 613, 66, 99, 119, 136, 1378, 140, 144, 145, 154, 183, 189
caveats see hypothesis objections
Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University 41, 47
CGAP 39, 48, 83
charity
giving to 66, 69, 71, 76, 81, 835, 99, 103, 106, 117, 11819, 1216, 128, 130, 132, 139, 157, 15960, 17071, 17682, 199
role of 38, 198, 2012, 206
choice 16, 245, 29, 4243, 51, 62, 76, 79, 81, 100, 104, 116, 120, 130, 136, 1413, 151, 154, 17072, 1912, 194, 196, 198, 205
see also agency
Citizenship Survey 37, 65, 72, 74, 77, 79, 83, 858, 9193, 100104, 115, 11718, 142, 189
civic participation 37, 656, 745, 102, 117, 118, 1218, 13033
see also giving
civic sector 19, 2223, 35, 456, 49, 51, 546, 5961, 78, 1356, 1556, 161, 183, 1889, 1918, 200201
coercion 17, 23, 34, 194
see also force
cognitive see attitudes
Coleman 13, 1718, 195
collaboration see cooperation
communal 18, 29, 42, 45, 92, 11517, 206
welfare 35, 645, 69, 7880, 94, 99, 1079
see also share
community 67, 345, 42, 478, 523, 789, 81, 90, 925, 128, 130, 139, 155, 156, 188, 200201, 2056
see also neighbourhood; ward
competitive 4, 5, 1011, 13, 456, 155, 168, 170, 181, 196, 206
conceptual framework 4244, 613
confounding effects see omitted variables
cooperation 1011, 15, 18, 2123, 25, 41, 43, 46, 48, 52, 57, 116, 130, 134, 160, 163, 170, 181, 194, 206
crime 6, 28, 6780, 858, 90, 934, 101, 106, 1089, 124, 131, 13942, 14653, 189
crisis 49, 55
crowd out / crowd in 2, 910, 15, 42, 49, 51, 545
cycle 9, 434, 160, 205
see also response
Dasgupta 7, 213, 45
Della Giusta 20, 21
dependent 334, 42, 58, 66, 79, 151, 155
deprivation 6580, 8590, 924, 10510, 1237, 129, 131, 150
index of multiple deprivation 667, 85, 92, 1012
dictator game 1213, 478, 512, 205
donate see giving
Douglas 58
Dunn 94, 157
duty 58, 204
see also giving motivation
Easterlin Paradox 2
see also adaptation
education 41, 80, 86, 88, 90, 94, 96, 124, 12931, 136, 149, 151, 153, 189, 203
endowment see inequality
equality see inequality
ethnicity 34, 37, 52, 65, 7980, 8690, 94, 967, 104, 1089, 112, 1223, 1289, 130, 136, 146, 150, 170, 1789, 199
eudaimonia 1415
experiment 4, 911, 12, 24, 41, 47, 512, 58, 623, 117, 129, 134, 138, 157, 15987, 190, 205
force 21, 23, 80, 1934, 196
see also coercion
forgiveness 25, 205
Frey 4, 11, 156, 196
Gallup 38, 49, 59, 60, 203
GDP 1
gender 889, 967, 119, 123, 128, 136, 143, 146, 150, 166, 1789, 184
generosity 7, 16, 36, 40, 44, 80, 81, 11112, 156, 195
see also giving
giving
and cohesive relationships 35, 36, 4048, 95100, 11112, 137, 142, 1556, 15961, 1824, 18893, 201
and income see giving and wealth; income and giving
and inequality 46, 4956, 78
measurement of 3740, 46, 49, 56, 825, 925, 99, 1024, 140, 198201
motivation for 248, 4045, 47, 49, 523, 569, 121134, 1378, 17183
prevalence of 389, 66, 94, 1024, 140
and state led redistribution 4955, 1937
time vs. money 7, 33, 3940, 47, 81, 82, 97, 99, 1219
trends and patterns 3940, 47, 53, 156, 158, 206
and trust see trust and giving
and wealth 469, 9093, 129, 17183
and welfare 6482, 8595, 99, 1378, 14558, 18991
to whom see networks and the exclusivity of one’s social circle
Granovetter 19, 156
Grootaert 19, 28, 30, 31, 55, 84, 156, 163, 195
Gui 13, 15, 18, 22, 195
Halpern 17, 19, 28, 195
happiness see life-satisfaction
hedonism 1415
hedonistic treadmill 34
homogeneous 52, 112
see also ethnicity; networks and the exclusivity of one’s social circle
hypothesis 24, 36, 46, 48, 60, 115, 117, 136, 1378, 161, 179, 181, 198
objections 4663, 114, 1378
see also conceptual framework
incentives 23, 28, 45, 57, 98, 116
material 911
social 19, 26, 42, 61, 129
income
and giving 10, 26, 39, 41, 469, 524, 59, 8594, 98, 119, 121, 123, 12831, 135, 155, 15961, 1714, 17882, 191
and life-satisfaction 36
and relationships 911, 26, 28, 180, 182, 189
and welfare 16, 64, 8593, 189
see also giving and wealth; inequality; wealth
individualistic 1, 11, 13, 14, 26, 32, 188, 194, 195, 197, 203, 205
see also materialism; self-interest
inequality 2, 46, 11, 4856, 78, 116, 1778, 191, 194, 204
aversion 26, 47, 54, 57, 1778, 180, 186, 191
and giving see giving and inequality
less well-endowed 34, 79
and life-satisfaction see life-satisfaction and inequality
informal sector see civic sector
institutions 5, 18, 212, 25, 28, 30, 43, 44, 57, 60, 74, 79, 82, 11617, 189, 1927, 2023, 206
see also norms; sanctions; state sector
instrumental 8, 12, 15, 27, 28, 57, 65, 146, 151, 204
intrinsic 4, 8, 10, 1214, 1516, 23, 25, 2728, 46, 55, 57, 80, 116
irrational see rational
Johns Hopkins Global Civil Society Index 35
Kolm 13, 15, 23, 33, 41, 44, 58, 150, 163, 170, 195
Konow 25, 51
Kosse 129, 160, 205
Krishna 19, 20, 25, 27, 28, 29, 33, 84, 117, 131, 156, 160, 182, 195, 202
Layard 2, 3, 4
leader 20, 58, 202, 203
life-satisfaction 23, 8, 26, 645
five ways to wellbeing 7
and giving 59, 61, 6778, 856, 934, 1058, 110, 140, 1568, 189, 198
and income 26, 93, 198, 91
and inequality 2, 46, 28, 33, 49, 78, 163, 178
and interpersonal relationships 68, 911, 28, 74, 191
limitations of life-satisfaction indicators 1416
market sector 10, 13, 1819, 2223, 35, 456, 56, 5960, 61, 136, 155, 163, 170, 188, 1928, 201
materialism 1, 35, 89, 182, 204
effect on interpersonal relationships 56, 911, 1314, 42, 195
see also individualistic; intrinsic
Mauss 33
see also norms; reciprocity; team thinking
money see income; inequality; wealth
moral licence 58
see also team-thinking; values; virtue
morale 15 23
morals 9, 13, 15, 24, 26, 57, 117, 181, 203
neighbour 6, 7, 35, 37, 39, 81, 93, 968, 111, 120, 133, 156, 170, 201, 203
trust in 645, 6780, 856, 89, 93, 967, 101, 119, 1216, 133
neighbourhood 37, 47, 53, 65, 77, 79, 856, 90, 923, 97, 99, 110, 135, 139, 141, 143, 14550, 1524, 1889, 200
see also community
networks 67, 1820, 278, 3031, 34, 43, 48, 58, 96, 142, 156, 181, 189, 195, 197
and the exclusivity of one’s social circle 14, 1920, 31, 38, 40, 435, 52, 56, 59, 7881, 825, 112, 116, 122, 128, 139, 1412, 156, 190, 195, 198200, 206
and giving 4041, 65, 90, 92, 149, 201
see also ethnicity; social capital
New Economics Foundation 2, 7
non-contractable 15, 18, 22, 46, 58, 61
norms 5, 1011, 1726, 2831, 334, 36, 40, 41, 43, 489, 578, 74, 170,181, 189, 192, 195, 2023, 206
and giving 4142, 578, 92, 116, 193
see also institutions; rules, sanctions; state-sector
nudge 16, 204
objections see hypothesis objections
OECD 33, 46, 47, 4951, 5960
omitted variables see hypothesis objections
opportunistic 224, 33, 41, 58, 62, 116, 142, 1923, 202, 206
peers 2, 4, 6, 42, 58
see also networks; reputation
philanthropy see generosity; giving
polarize 5, 22, 34, 46, 79, 80, 130, 151, 194, 200
policy 16, 29, 32, 45, 55, 61, 99, 1546, 161, 183, 188, 195207
poor see income; inequality; wealth
power 5, 8, 11, 13, 20, 223, 289, 3031, 334, 48, 60, 84, 130, 138, 154, 1634, 166, 192, 194, 1967, 202
prescriptive 45, 198, 204
prosocial and antisocial definition 27, 43, 569
see also attitudes
Putnam 13, 18, 27, 28, 34, 40, 78, 195, 206
quality-of-life see life-satisfaction
rational 10, 1314, 26, 197, 203
reciprocity 18, 2023, 25, 33, 412, 44, 524, 56, 57, 72, 79, 82, 99, 130, 142, 1512, 155, 170, 181, 192, 195, 199, 2045, 206
see also response
redistribution 23, 456, 49, 54, 56, 59, 180, 191, 194
relational goods 15, 18, 22
relational ties see networks
relationships (interpersonal)
advantages of 68, 1622, 28, 1917
improvement of 11617, 137, 142, 1634, 1823, 201205
measurement of 2935, 40, 426, 161, 1823, 191, 197201
negative aspects of 8, 2024, 2932, 45, 55, 58, 195, 197
see also civic sector; income and relationships; networks; social capital; social cohesion
religion 77, 81, 968, 110, 124, 1289, 13031, 136, 147, 154, 1789, 199, 203
reputation 21, 41, 578, 181
see also peers
resources 12, 1213, 17, 20, 22, 245, 279, 325, 389, 40, 43, 459, 557, 6061, 67, 96, 119, 1289, 135, 155, 16061, 164, 181, 183, 18891, 196, 198, 202, 206
response (to social environment) 10, 26, 36, 424, 523, 55, 57, 79, 117, 120, 1334, 136, 142, 144, 156, 160, 173, 177, 179, 181, 1823, 190, 193, 200, 205
see also cycle; reciprocity
restrict 8, 24, 31, 45, 54, 55, 121, 128, 164
rich see income; inequality; wealth
risk 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 22, 28, 55, 195, 200
rules 19, 214, 25, 29, 30, 33, 58, 80, 118, 1947, 203
see also institutions; norms, sanctions
Ryff 14
sanctions 18, 215, 28, 41, 58, 80, 195, 203
see also institutions; norms, rules
Scandinavia 49
Science of Generosity 7
self-interest 1015, 22, 23, 25, 27; 31, 42, 45, 46, 569, 75, 77, 7981, 117, 131, 192, 1936, 2036
see also attitudes; giving motivation; individualism
self-sufficient 545
Sen 24, 163, 1967, 202
shame 7, 41, 57, 203
Shang 48, 58
share 3, 10, 13, 25, 27, 28, 37, 51, 60, 72, 834, 98, 107, 122, 129, 162, 164, 1678, 189, 191, 199
see also reciprocity
social capital
bonding and bridging 1920, 24, 38, 78, 139, 156
definition 1620, 289
limitations to theory 1718, 2933, 44
measurement of see relationships, measurement of
negative social capital see relationships, negative aspects of
and resource flows 3235
see also attitudes; networks; norms; relationships; trust
social cohesion 29, 32, 38, 45, 46, 478, 49, 55, 56, 61, 64, 78, 81, 85, 95, 1156, 118, 120, 130, 134, 1356, 137, 154, 1556, 161, 1834, 18893, 198, 2017
definition 34, 424
see also relationships; social capital; solidarity; trust
social comparisons 45, 9, 155, 204
social networks see networks
social norms see norms
solicitation see ask
solidarity 20, 25, 31, 334, 41, 57, 77, 81
see also social cohesion
state sector 223, 35, 37, 456, 4951, 546, 5960, 61, 74, 136, 155, 163, 188, 1927, 201
statistical significance 11314
Stiglitz 2
stranger 7, 389, 40, 49, 59, 166
see also networks and the exclusivity of one’s social circle
structure and agency 25
see also choice; cycle; response
subjective 2, 65, 1412, 175
Sugden 13, 15, 26, 195
tax and redistribution 23, 39, 456, 49, 534, 56, 194
team thinking 1213, 2627, 57, 66, 181, 195
tradition 30, 58
see also norms
trends see giving trends
trust (trustworthy)
building 2124, 4345, 60, 11617, 1346, 1459, 154
definition 2021
as a facilitator of cooperation 8, 1825, 116
and giving 59, 6780, 8589, 9092, 934, 979, 101, 10510, 11518, 1218, 1346, 1459, 154, 189
and life-satisfaction 3, 43, 196
prevalence 101, 119, 141
as a proxy for cohesive relationships 11, 18, 20, 22, 24, 289, 34, 434, 59, 989, 137
see also relationships; social capital; social cohesion
ultimatum game 13
Understanding Society 37, 65, 847, 89, 91, 95
Uphoff 22, 25, 117
values 6, 19, 26, 412, 578, 80, 134, 136, 164, 193, 1956, 2034
see also attitudes; morals
virtue 15, 42, 204
voluntary sector see civic sector
volunteer 7, 37, 389, 47, 56, 59, 66, 6876, 79, 81, 835, 1023, 1057, 112, 11718, 1218, 130, 1323, 13940, 143, 146, 14950, 1534, 198, 201, 205
see also giving
ward 656; 85, 90, 92, 102, 1234, 131, 142
see also community
warm glow 26, 55, 57
wealth 12, 5, 8, 11, 14, 18, 45, 478, 53, 59, 83, 91, 119, 129, 131, 142, 147, 149, 151, 154, 161, 1934,
see also income; inequality; polarize
welfare
definition 64
indicators of 646, 1012, 14041, 197201
see also giving and welfare; income; relationships
wellbeing see life-satisfaction
Wicksteed 12
Wilkinson 2, 6, 28, 33, 49, 55, 79, 164, 178
World Bank 17, 23, 197, 202
World Giving Index 389, 49