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Declining Democracy in East-Central Europe

The Divide in the EU and Emerging Hard Populism

Attila Ágh

The dramatic decline of democracy in East-Central Europe has attracted great interest world-wide. Going beyond the narrow spectrum of the extensive literature on this topic, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of ECE region – Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia – from systemic change in 1989 to 2019 to explain the reasons of the collapse of ECE democratic systems in the 2010s.
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References

Attila Ágh

I.    OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

CoE (Council of Europe)

CoE (2017), ‘State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law: Populism – How strong are Europe’s checks and balances?’, https://edoc.coe.int/en/an-overview/7345-pdf-state-of-democracy-human-rights-and-the-rule-of-law.html

CoE (2018a), ‘Joint opinion on Hungary, Stop Soros legislative package’, https://www.osce.org/odihr/385932?download=true

CoE (2018b), ‘State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law: Report by the Secretary General’, https://rm.coe.int/state-of-democracy-human-rights-and-the-rule-of-law-role-of-institutio/168086c0c5

CoE, GRECO (Group of States against Corruption) (2016), ‘16th general activity report 2015’, https://rm.coe.int/16806cbf46

Deutscher Bundestag

Deutscher Bundestag (2013), Abschied von der Allmacht des BIP, 28 January, http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2013/42556463_kw05_pa_enquete_wachstum/index.html

EB (Eurobarometer)

EB (2018), ‘Democracy on the move’, Standard Eurobarometer 89.2, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/eurobarometre/2018/oneyearbefore2019/eb89_one_year_before_2019_eurobarometer_en_opt.pdf

EC (European Commission)

EC (2008), ‘Beyond GDP – Measurements for sustainable development’, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/beyond_gdp/download/bgdp_AC_ces1669-2008_en.pdf

EC (2009), ‘GDP and beyond: Measuring progress in a changing world’, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cros/system/files/06_GDP%20and%20beyond.pdf

EC (2012), ‘Barroso’s State of the Union address’, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/12/596

EC (2013a), ‘Progress on “GDP and beyond” actions’, Brussels, 2 August, SWD(2013) 303 final, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/enveco/pdf/SWD_2013_303.pdf

EC (2013b), ‘Enlargement strategy and main challenges 2013–2014: Copenhagen twenty years on’, Brussels, 16 October, COM(2013) 700 final, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/strategy_paper_2013_en.pdf

EC (2014), ‘A new EU Framework to strengthen the rule of law’, Brussels, 11 March, COM(2014) 158 final, http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2014/EN/1-2014-158-EN-F1-1.Pdf

EC (2016a), European Social Progress Index (regional), http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/information/maps/social_progress

EC (2016b), ‘Commission Recommendation of 27.7.2016 regarding the rule of law in Poland’, Brussels, 27 July, C(2016) 5703 final, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/effective-justice/files/recommendation-rule-of-law-poland-20160727_en.pdf

EC (2017a), ‘The EU Regional Competitiveness Index 2016’, http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/work/201701_regional_competitiveness2016.pdf

EC (2017b), ‘Commission launches the reflection on the social dimension of Europe by 2025’, 26 April, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1008_en.htm

EC (2017c), ‘Reflection paper on the social dimension of the future of Europe’, 26 April, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/reflection-paper-social-dimension-europe_en.pdf

EC (2017d), ‘Hungary: Commission takes second step in infringement procedure on Higher Education Law’, 13 July, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1952_en.htm

EC (2017e), ‘European Commission steps up infringement against Hungary on NGO Law’, 4 October, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1982_en.htm

EC (2017f), ‘Relocation: Commission moves to the next stage in infringement procedures against the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland’, 26 July, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-2103_en.htm

EC (2017g), ‘European Commission acts to preserve the rule of law in Poland’, 26 July, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-2161_en.htm

EC (2017h), ‘European Commission launches infringement against Poland over measures affecting judiciary’, 29 July, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-2205_en.htm

EC (2017i), ‘Independence of the judiciary: European Commission takes second step in infringement procedure against Poland’, 12 September, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-3186_en.htm

EC (2017j), ‘Juncker’s State of the Union address 2017’, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-17-3165_en.htm

EC (2018a), ‘A credible enlargement perspective for and enhanced EU engagement with the Western Balkans’, Strasbourg, 6 February, COM(2018) 65 final, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/communication-credible-enlargement-perspective-western-balkans_en.pdf

EC (2018b), ‘Active subsidiarity: A new way of working’, 10 July, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/report-task-force-subsidiarity-proportionality-doing-less-more-efficiently_1.pdf

EC (2018c), ‘Social Scoreboard 2018’, https://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu/social-scoreboard/

EC (2018d), ‘Juncker’s State of the Union address’, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/soteu2018-speech_en_0.pdf

ECouncil (Council of the EU)

ECouncil (2003), ‘European Security Strategy: A secure Europe in a better world’, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf

ECouncil (2013), ‘General Affairs 3235th Council meeting’, Brussels, 22 April, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_PRES-13-153_en.htm

ECouncil (2014), ‘Ensuring respect for the rule of law in the European Union’, Brussels, 14 November, http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2015206%202014%20INIT

ECouncil (2016a), ‘A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy’, https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf

ECouncil (2016b), ‘Rule of law dialogue’, 24 May, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-8774-2016-INIT/en/pdf

ECouncil (2017), ‘Rule of law in Poland’, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/36886/rule-of-law-poland-en.pdf

ECouncil (2018a), General Council conclusions: Enlargement and Stabilisation and Association Process’, Brussels, 26 June, http://www.consilium.europa.eu//media/35863/st10555-en18.pdf

ECouncil (2018b), ‘EU–Western Balkan Summit: Sofia Declaration’, 17 May, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/34776/sofia-declaration_en.pdf

ECouncil (2018c), ‘Rule of law in Hungary’, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/36888/rule-of-law-hungary-en.pdf

EP (European Parliament)

EP (2013), ‘Tavares Report on the situation of human rights: Standards and practices in Hungary’, European Parliament, Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, 2012/2130(INI), 2 May, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+COMPARL+PE-508.211+02+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN

EP (2015), Situation in Hungary’, resolution on 10 June, https://www.biicl.org/documents/652_ep_res_on_hungary.pdf?showdocument=1

EP (2016a), ‘Fundamental rights in Poland: MEPs want government to heed recommendations’, 14 September, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdfs/news/expert/infopress/20160909IPR41714/20160909IPR41714_en.pdf

EP (2016b), ‘Resolution on the recent development in Poland’, 14 September, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+TA+P8-TA-2016-0344+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN

EP (2016c), ‘Report with recommendations to the Commission on the establishment of an EU mechanism on democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights’, 10 October, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A8-2016-0283+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

EP (2017a), Legislative train schedule: Establishing of an EU mechanism on democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-area-of-justice-and-fundamental-rights/file-establishing-of-an-eu-mechanism-on-democracy-the-rule-of-law-and-fund-rights

EP (2017b), ‘The Juncker Commission’s ten priorities’, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2017/595876/EPRS_IDA(2017)595876_EN.pdf

EP (2017c), ‘Situation in Hungary’, 17 May, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+TA+P8-TA-2017-0216+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN

EP (2017d), ‘Fundamental rights in Hungary: MEPs call for triggering Article 7’, 17 May, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdfs/news/expert/infopress/20170511IPR74350/20170511IPR74350_en.pdf

EP (2017e), ‘Two years until the 2019 European elections’, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/599336/EPRS_STU(2017)599336_EN.pdf

EP (2017f), ‘Combating inequalities as a lever to boost job creation and growth’, resolution on 16 November, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P8-TA-2017-0451&language=EN

EP (2018a), ‘Sargentini Report’, LIBE Committee, 11 April, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/resources/library/media/20180411RES01553/20180411RES01553.pdf

EP (2018b), ‘The situation in Hungary’, resolution on 12 September, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=TA&reference=20180912&secondRef=TOC

EPP (European People’s Party)

EPP (2017), ‘Prime Minister Orbán to comply with EU laws and EPP values following meeting with EPP presidency’, 29 April, http://www.epp.eu/press-releases/prime-minister-orban-to-comply-with-eu-laws-and-epp-values-following-meeting-with-epp-presidency/

EUCouncil (European Council)

EUCouncil (2017), ‘The Rome Declaration’, 25 March, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/03/25-rome-declaration

Eurofound

Eurofound (2011), ‘European Quality of Life Survey 2011’, https://data.europa.eu/euodp/data/dataset/european-quality-of-life-survey-2011

Eurofound (2012), ‘European Quality of Life Surveys (EQLS) 2011–2012’, http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/surveys/eqls/2011/index.htm

Eurofound (2017a), ‘European Quality of Life Surveys 2016’, https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/data/european-quality-of-life-survey

Eurofound (2017b), ‘Social mobility in the EU’, https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2017/social-mobility-in-the-eu

Eurofound (2018), ‘Quality of life: Social insecurities and resilience’, https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_document/ef18019en.pdf

EUPACK (European Public Administration Country Knowledge)

EUPACK (2018a), ‘A comparative overview of public administration characteristics and performance in EU28’, https://publicationseuropa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/3e89d981-48fc-11e8-be1d-01aa75ed71a1/language-en.

EUPACK (2018b), ‘Public administration characteristics and performance in EU28’, http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=8123&furtherPubs=yes

Eurostat

Eurostat (2011), ‘GDP & beyond: Focus on measuring economic development and well-being’, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5726917/KS-BU-10-002-EN.PDF/07e0c52e-39c2-4e09-a9ac-cc8ac99071c6?version=1.0

ILO (International Labour Organization)

ILO (2016), ‘Crisis has aggravated long-term erosion of European middle class’, http://www.ilo.org/brussels/press/press-releases/WCMS_455743/lang–en/index.htm

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

IMF (2014a), ‘Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe: Regional economic issues update’, October, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2014/eur/eng/pdf/erei1014.pdf

IMF (2014b), ‘25 years of transition: Post-communist Europe and the IMF: Regional economic issues special report’, October, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2014/eur/eng/pdf/erei_sr_102414.pdf

IMF (2016), ‘Regional economic issues: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe’, May, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2016/eur/eng/pdf/rei0516.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

OECD (2008), ‘Growing unequal: Income distribution and poverty in OECD countries’, http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/growingunequalincomedistributionandpovertyinoecdcountries.htm Summary, https://www.oecd.org/els/soc/41527936.pdf

OECD (2009), ‘Society at a glance’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/soc_glance-2008-en.pdf

OECD (2011a), ‘Society at a glance’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/soc_glance-2011-

OECD (2011b), ‘Divided we stand: Why inequality keeps rising’, http://www.oecd.org/document/51/0,3746,en_2649_33933_49147827_1_1_1_1,00.htm

OECD (2011c), ‘Better Life Index’, http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/

OECD (2011d), ‘Government at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/gov/governmentataglance2011.htm

OECD (2011e), ‘How’s life? Measuring well-being’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/how-s-life_9789264121164-en

OECD (2013a), ‘OECD guidelines on measuring subjective well-being’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/oecd-guidelines-on-measuring-subjective-well-being-9789264191655-en.htm

OECD (2013b), ‘Government at a glance’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/government-at-a-glance-2013_gov_glance-2013-en

OECD (2013c), ‘How’s life? Measuring well-being’, http://www.oecd.org/sdd/3013071e.pdf

OECD (2013d), ‘Education at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/education/eag2013%20(eng)–FINAL%2020%20June%202013.pdf

OECD (2014a), ‘Society at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/OECD2014-SocietyAtAGlance2014.pdf

OECD (2014b), ‘Income inequality update – Rising inequality: Youth and poor fall further behind’, http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/OECD2014-Income-Inequality-Update.pdf

OECD (2014c), ‘Education at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2014-indicators-by-chapter.htm

OECD (2015a), ‘In it together: Why less inequality benefits all’, http://www.oecd.org/els/in-it-together-why-less-inequality-benefits-all-9789264235120-en.htm

OECD (2015b), ‘Government at a glance’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/government-at-a-glance-2015_gov_glance-2015-en

OECD (2015c), ‘How’s life? Measuring well-being’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/how-s-life-2015_how_life-2015-en

OECD (2015d), ‘Education at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2015.htm

OECD (2016a), ‘Society at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/social/society-at-a-glance-19991290.htm

OECD (2016b), ‘Education at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/education-at-a-glance-2016-indicators.htm

OECD (2017a), ‘Measuring well-being and progress: Well-being research’, http://www.oecd.org/statistics/measuring-well-being-and-progress.htm

OECD (2017b), ‘Guidelines on measuring trust’, http://www.oecd.org/governance/oecd-guidelines-on-measuring-trust-9789264278219-en.htm

OECD (2017c), ‘How’s life in the Czech Republic?’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Czech-Republic.pdf

OECD (2017d), ‘How’s life in Hungary?’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Hungary.pdf

OECD (2017e), ‘How’s life in Poland?’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Poland.pdf

OECD (2017f), ‘How’s life in Slovenia?’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Slovenia.pdf

OECD (2017g), ‘How’s life in the Slovak Republic?’, https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Slovak-Republic.pdf

OECD (2017h), ‘Government at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/gov/govataglance.htm

OECD (2017i), ‘Education at a glance’, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2017_eag-2017-en

OECD (2018a), ‘Household disposable income’, https://data.oecd.org/hha/household-disposable-income.htm

OECD (2018b), ‘Beyond GDP: Measuring what counts for economic and social performance’, http://www.oecd.org/statistics/measuring-economic-social-progress/HLEG-reports.pdf

OECD (2018c), ‘A broken social elevator? How to promote social mobility’, http://www.oecd.org/social/broken-elevator-how-to-promote-social-mobility-9789264301085-en.htm

OECD (2018d), ‘Measuring well-being and progress: Well-being research’, http://www.oecd.org/statistics/measuring-well-being-and-progress.htm

OECD (2018e), ‘Better Life Initiative 2017: Full dataset’, Better-Life-Initiative-2017-country-notes-data.xlsx.

OECD (2018f), ‘The High-Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress’, http://www.oecd.org/statistics/measuring-economic-social-progress/aboutthehigh-levelexpertgroup.htm

OECD (2018g), ‘Education at a glance’, http://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2018-data-and-methodology.htm

OGP (Open Government Partnership)

OGP (2016a), ‘Open letter to the OGP Steering Committee’, 26 April (66 civil organizations), https://www.access-info.org/wp-content/uploads/OGP_SC_OpenLetter_29April2016.pdf

OGP (2016b), ‘Support Unit: Statement by OGP’s Criteria with a joint proposal for dialogue with Government of Hungary’, 22 June, http.opengovpartnership.org/blog/ogp-webmaster/2016/06/22/statement-ogps-criteria-and-standards-subcommittee-regarding

V4 (Visegrad Four)

V4 (2015), ‘Joint statement of the heads of government of the Visegrad Group countries on 4 September 2015’, Prague Declaration, http://www.visegradgroup.eu/calendar/2015/joint-statement-of-the-150904

WB (World Bank)

WB (1994), ‘Governance: The World Bank’s experience’, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/711471468765285964/Governance-the-World-Banks-experience

WB (2011), Golden Growth: Restoring the Lustre of the European Economic Model, ed. Indermit Gill and Martin Raiser, Washington, DC: World Bank, http://www.scribd.com/doc/91164655/Golden-Growth

WB (2018), ‘Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) governance reports’, http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports

WHR (World Happiness Report)

WHR (2012), ‘World Happiness Report’, ed. John Helliwell, Richard Layard and Jeffrey Sachs, with an Introduction by Jeffrey Sachs, http://www.earth.columbia.edu/sitefiles/file/Sachs%20Writing/2012/World%20Happiness%20Report.pdf

WHR (2013), https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2013/WorldHappinessReport2013_online.pdf

WHR (2015), http://unsdsn.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/WHR15.pdf

WHR (2017), https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2017/HR17.pdf

WHR (2018), https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2018/WHR_web.pdf

II.    REFERENCES – POLICY/RANKING INSTITUTIONS

BS (Bertelsmann Stiftung)

BS (2012), BTI 2012, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.

BS (2017), ‘Core European values under threat’, http://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/BSt/Publikationen/GrauePublikationen/EZ_flashlight_europe_2017_08_ENG.pdf

BS (2018a), ‘Quality of democracy’, https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/en/topics/aktuelle-meldungen/2018/oktober/the-quality-of-democracy-is-declining-in-many-industrialized-states/

BS (2018b), ‘Czech Republic’, 2018 Country Report, http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf/BTI_2018_Czech_Republic.pdf

BS (2018c), ‘Hungary’, 2018 Country Report, http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf/BTI_2018_Hungary.pdf

BS (2018d), ‘Poland’, 2018 Country Report, http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf/BTI_2018_Poland.pdf

BS (2018e), ‘Slovenia’, 2018 Country Report, http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf/BTI_2018_Slovenia.pdf

BS (2018f), ‘Slovakia’, 2018 Country Report, http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf/BTI_2018_Slovakia.pdf

Chatham House

Chatham House (2017), ‘The future of Europe: Comparing public and elite attitudes’, https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/publications/research/2017-06-20-future-europe-attitudes-raines-goodwin-cutts-final.pdf

EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit)

EIU (2015), ‘Democracy Index 2014: Democracy and it discontents’, http://www.eiu.com/public/thankyou_download.aspx?activity=download&campaignid=Democracy0115

EIU (2018a), ‘Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack’, https://pages.eiu.com/rs/753-RIQ-438/images/Democracy_Index_2017.pdf

EIU (2018b), ‘West Balkans’, http://www.eiu.com/public/thankyou_download.aspx?activity=download&campaignid=WesternBalkans

EIU (2019), ‘Democracy Index 2018: Me too? Political participation, protest and democracy’, http://www.eiu.com/Handlers/WhitepaperHandler.ashx?fi=Democracy_Index_2018.pdf&mode=wp&campaignid=Democracy2018

FES (Friedrich Ebert Stiftung)

FES (2018), ‘The State of the European Union 2017’, http://luaediciones.com/InformeUE2018/english/

FH (Freedom House)

FH (2017a), ‘Freedom of the press 2017’, https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FOTP_2017_booklet_FINAL_April28.pdf

FH (2017b) ‘Populists and autocrats: The dual threat to global democracy’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2017

FH (2018a), ‘Freedom in the World 2018: Democracy in crisis’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2018

FH (2018b), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Confronting illiberalism’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/nations-transit-2018

FH (2018c), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Czech Republic’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/czech-republic

FH (2018d), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Hungary’, https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/NiT2018_Hungary.pdf

FH (2018e), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Poland’, https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/NiT2018_Poland_0.pdf

FH (2018f), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Slovakia’, https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/NiT2018_Slovakia.pdf

FH (2018g), ‘Nations in Transit 2018: Slovenia’, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/slovenia

Globsec

Globsec (2017), ‘Globsec Trends 2017: Mixed messages and signs of hope from Central and Eastern Europe’, https://www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/globsec_trends_2017.pdf

TI (Transparency International)

TI (2018), ‘Corruption Perception Index 2017’, https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2017

V-Dem Institute

V-Dem (2017), ‘Democracy at dusk? V-Dem annual report 2017’, https://www.v-dem.net/media/filer_public/91/14/9114ff4a-357e-4296-911a-6bb57bcc6827/v-dem_annualreport2017.pdf

WEF (World Economic Forum)

Standing, Guy (2016a), ‘Meet the precariat, the new global class fuelling the rise of populism’, WEF, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/11/precariat-global-class-rise-of-populism/

Standing, Guy (2016b), ‘The 5 biggest lies of global capitalism’, WEF, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/lies-of-global-capitalism-guy-standing/

Standing, Guy (2016c), ‘The precariat, populism and robots: Is basic income a political imperative?’, WEF, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/the-precariat-populism-and-robots-is-basic-income-a-political-imperative/

WEF (2014), ‘Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015’, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2014-15.pdf

III.    RESEARCH REFERENCES

Adler, Matthew and Marc Fleurbaey (eds) (2016), The Oxford Handbook of Well-being and Public Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Aghion, Philippe and Alexandra Roulet (2014), ‘Growth and the smart state’, Annual Review of Economics, 6 (1), 913–926.

Akman, Pinar and Hussein Kassim (2010), ‘Myth and myth-making in the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 48 (1), 111–132.

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