Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Declining Democracy in East-Central Europe

The Divide in the EU and Emerging Hard Populism

Attila Ágh

The dramatic decline of democracy in East-Central Europe has attracted great interest world-wide. Going beyond the narrow spectrum of the extensive literature on this topic, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of ECE region – Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia – from systemic change in 1989 to 2019 to explain the reasons of the collapse of ECE democratic systems in the 2010s.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Attila Ágh

absolute civilizational crisis 256

absolute civilizational deficit 229, 243, 247

absolute deficit 30–31, 32–33, 36

‘Absurdistan’ 6

‘affective happiness’ 240

agency capture 182, 188

agenda setting 192

alienation 117, 118, 160, 171, 192, 211, 226, 260

American concept 235

American dream 230

Americanization 22

Aniol, Wlodzimierz 232

ANO 187

apathy 195

apolitical politics 79, 80, 171

Arab Spring 101

Article 7 procedure 213, 214, 215, 221, 222, 223, 224

attitudinal consolidation 90

Austria 9, 11, 144, 210

authoritarian populism 152, 247, 258

see also populism

authoritarian regimes/rule 4, 22, 54, 180, 198–199, 209, 247, 258

and EU 120, 179, 226

and formal-legal institutions 196, 259

see also façade democracy

autocracies 175–176, 178

autocratic elites 218–219

autocratization 177

Balfour, Rosa 158

Balkan enlargement 111

Bárd, Petra 219

Barroso, President 214

Barroso Commission 217

basic human needs (BHN) 235, 236, 237

‘basic needs’ society 54

Berlin Process 111

Bernauer et al. 136

Bertelsmann country reports 166

Bertelsmann Stiftung 22, 178, 199

Bertelsmann Transformation Index 88

Better Life Index 238, 239

‘Beyond GDP: Measuring social progress in Europe’ 238

Bipolar World Order 12, 99

Blockmans, Steven 155

Blokker, Paul 34–35

Boedeltje, Mijke 135–136

bonding networks 18

bonding social capital 133, 134

bourgeoisie 8, 88, 139

Brexit 153, 166

BRICS 12, 101

bridging social capital 133, 134

Bruff, Ian 65

Brundtland Report 229

Brusis, Martin 125, 165–166

Brussels elite 119–120

Bugaric, Bojan 149, 160, 212

Bundestag 238

Buti, Marco 137

capitalism, and nativist state 164

Carrera, Sergio 219

catching up 2, 14, 18–19, 22, 32–33, 116, 205, 207

benign neglect by EU 13, 212

and cultural crisis 232

and cultural distance 243

and democratization 251

dual face 7

failure 125, 200, 229

and GDP 46

and global crisis 21

and mass resentment 4, 74

and well-being 246

Central Europe 209

cultural and geographic term 211

features 5–6

history 7–8, 11

Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) 219

Chandler, David 67, 68

Chryssogelos, Angelos 156

citizenization 8, 84

citizens, and exclusion from participation 191–195

citizenship, loss of 180, 200, 247

civic constitutionalism 35

civic identity 22

civilizational crisis 91, 183, 230, 231, 232, 246, 247, 256

civilizational decline 231

civilizational deficit 21, 24, 229, 230, 232–233, 243, 244–245, 246

civil society 89, 132–133, 180, 255, 257

civil society organizations 185

Civil Society Participation Index 231

clientele-corruption networks 35

clientelism 172

coalition governments 87, 89, 187

cognitive dissonance 23, 143, 145–150, 259–260, 261

cohesion 17–19, 56, 69, 255

cohesive Europe 251–254, 257

Coman, Ramona 199

Comecon 10

competence 135, 136, 137

competitive autocracies 175–176

competitiveness 118–119, 200

complex deficit 46

complexity management 67–68

Comprador political science 202

confrontation 9, 45, 49, 140, 171, 197, 209, 258

political 10

and refugee crisis 205

consolidation 18, 19, 95, 119, 180, 199, 259

social 50, 90, 93, 113, 247

Western 14

‘conspicuous’ consumption 87

conspiracy theories 162

constitutional consolidation 90

contact capital 248

convergence 46, 56, 57, 113, 175, 209, 244

dream 4, 114–115, 143

EU criteria 75, 118, 182, 226

regional 207, 211

convergence cum consolidation model 183

‘cooperative regional orders’ 207

Copenhagen Commission 215

Copenhagen criteria 13, 36–37, 43, 181

Copenhagen dilemma 37, 206, 217

Copenhagen learning process 218, 226, 257

‘Copenhagen revisited’ 113, 261

‘Copenhagen twenty years on’ (EC) 110

the core 44

Core-1 44, 45

Core-2 44, 45

core–periphery divide 57, 102, 209, 219, 225, 255, 257

Cornips, Juul 135–136

corporate state capture 94

corruption 87, 92, 172, 173

systemic 82, 171, 191, 193, 200

Council of Ministers 217

the countryside 242

credibility crisis 125, 135, 138, 150

crisis management 98, 188, 191, 225, 246, 254–255

crisis resilience 200

Croatia (CR) 11

crony capitalism 40–41, 59, 60, 82, 84, 170, 182

and politico-business clientele networks 87

and systemic corruption 191

and velvet dictatorship 172

CSD party 187

cultural backlash 167

cultural-civic development 30

cultural crisis 232

cultural decline 231

cultural deficit 31, 32, 33

cultural gap 243

cultural identity 21–22

culture 10, 19, 120, 123, 146, 190, 198

European 140–141, 145, 208, 225

political 13, 32, 34, 50, 130, 134, 148, 174, 177, 180, 195–196, 247

Western 132, 246

Czechoslovakia 10

see also Czech Republic; Slovakia

Czech Republic 7, 94, 166, 183, 187, 189, 210

and façade democracy 170–171, 182, 184

SPI ranking 236

velvet dictatorship 172

WHR ranking 244

Dahrendorf, Ralf 29, 257, 261–262

Davies, William 64

decision making 136, 154–155, 158, 187, 192, 201

and EU 44, 45, 207

decivilizational process 247–248

Declaration of the Prague Summit 210

deconsolidation 181, 182, 183, 197, 199, 230, 255

and age of uncertainty 196

and democracy capture 180

de-democratization 183

de-Europeanization 24, 183, 246, 248, 255

de-Europeanization process 260

deficit democracy 173

Deliberative Component Index 178

demobilization 89, 160, 196

democracy, minimalist definition 200

democracy, rule of law and fundamental rights (DRF) 213–219

democracy capture 180, 184, 191, 196

democracy deficit 75

democracy gap 43

Democracy Index 2014 177

democracy performance deficit 90

democratic renewal 258

democratization 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 32, 173, 182–183

and catching up 251

and cultural deficit 31

and formal and informal institutions 34

narrow definition 196

renewal 257

and support 131

two stages 171

in the West 256

Denk, Thomas 199

dependent development 41, 46

depoliticization 160, 169, 171, 196

DEREX (Demand for Right-Wing Extremism) Index 120

desecuritization 52, 56, 106, 122, 160, 230, 254

and domestic crisis 209

of the media 176, 195

and precariat 243

and refugee crisis 208

and social security 115

destabilization 73–74, 83, 92, 93, 102, 112, 183

of activists and journalists 195

and EU 120

and failed consolidation 119

international 112, 205

development, US concept 239

developmental state 181, 234

dictatorships 197

see also velvet dictatorships

Diedrichs et al. 42

differentiated integration (DI) 42–46

diffuse support 131–132

dilettante politicians 88

Dimitrova, Antoaneta 34, 175

disinvestment 33, 86, 87, 88, 116–117, 230, 231, 246

distrust 125, 126, 134, 137, 245

divergence 43–44, 114, 182, 209–210

divergence cum deconsolidation model 183

domestic crisis 27, 209

double movement 63–64

dual crisis 207, 208, 209, 210, 211

dual society 48, 55

Eastern crisis 112, 207

Eastern Europe, medieval history 11

Easternization 9, 10, 12

internal 119, 152, 246, 247

Eastern Partnership (EaP) 106–107, 108–109, 110, 112, 206, 210

Eastern periphery 45

Eastern road 48–53

East of the East 54, 55

Easton, David 134

Easton thesis 131

economic-business elites 247

economic deficits 74

economic development, inclusive 241

economic globalization 21

economic growth 64, 105, 106, 245

economic transition 18

The Economist 212

economy-centred populism 160

Eder, Anja 58

educated class 8

education 106, 193–194

effective membership, EU 113

Egalitarian Component Index 178

EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) 22, 194, 199

reports 177

Ekiert, Grzegorz 224

electoral autocracies 176

electoral democracy 200–201

Electoral Democracy Index 178

‘elevator effect’ 58

elite democracy 180, 255, 258

elites 137–138

Brussels 119–120

economic-business 247

hard populist 123, 138

political 134, 169, 191, 193, 200

politico-business 163, 164, 165, 184

populist 138, 148, 150, 171, 218–219, 247–248

emigration 243, 252, 255, 258

Emmanouilidis, Janis 155, 253–255

emotion 241

enemy images 162

Equal Access Index 231

EU 13, 14, 18–19, 23, 28, 75, 251–252

accession 30

and authoritarian regimes 120, 179, 226

‘blind spot’ 225–227

and contradictory attitudes towards 24

convergence 182, 183

and ‘cooperative regional orders’ 207

and Copenhagen criteria 36–37

and ‘Copenhagen dilemma’ 206

and crisis management 254–255

and deep democratic malaise 157

divergence 182

and DRF 213–219

and ECE conflicts with 162

ECE supports membership of 260, 261

and Euroscepticism 155–156

global role 12, 106–112

and governance 189, 190

and low effectiveness of ECE governments 186–187

and negative externalities 55

and NWO 99–100

and OWO 99, 101

and polity DI 43

and polycrisis 112–119

and populism against 160

and regressive divergence 43–45

taken by surprise by ECU reactions to crises 212

and tensions with US 102

and transfer of formal laws and institutions 33

and ‘trickling-down effects’ of European integration 51

and trust gap 131

and well-being 237–239

EU Cohesion Monitor 246

eudaimonia 233

EU paradox 260

Eupopulism 119, 155–156, 157, 161, 162, 210

Euro-Atlantic integration 1, 12, 103, 104

Eurobarometer (EB) 22–23, 145

Euroforum 238

Eurofound reports 41

European Commission 215–217, 218, 219, 225

European dream 230, 256

European External Action Service 109

European identity 22, 260, 261

Europeanization 15, 16, 21, 24, 28, 32, 173, 182–183, 207

and catching up 251

and cultural deficit 31

and deep resentment 211

and Eastern road 48–53

external 33–34, 77–78, 93, 108, 114, 175, 179

formal external and substantive internal 33

and formal-legal system 175

and gap between external and internal 93

and relative deficit 36

roll-back 12

of social sciences 22

and support 131

and systemic threat 216

and tension between external and internal 75–77

‘thin’ 114

thin 95

two stages 171

in West Balkans and EaP 206

European Management Forum 62

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 106, 107, 110

European Neighbourhood Watch (ENW) 110

European Parliament 214, 217, 218, 219, 220–221, 223

European People’s Party (EPP) 220–221, 223

European Pillar of Social Rights (EPSR) 253

European Policy Centre (EPC) 158, 225, 237, 254

European Public Administration Country Knowledge (EUPACK) 195–196

European Quality of Life Surveys 238

European Science Foundation (ESF) 49–50

European Social Progress Index 245

European Social Union (ESU) 252, 253, 257

European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) 253

‘European Union Pact on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights’ 218

Europe-centric modernization narrative 138–139, 140–141, 142–145, 146, 148, 149, 150

Euroscepticism 55–56, 68, 82, 121, 155–156, 168–169

Eurostat 237, 238

Eurozone crisis 98, 118, 125, 212

evaluation 241

‘evaluative happiness’ 240

executive power 179, 184, 190

external Europeanization 33–34, 77–78, 93, 108, 114, 175, 179

external security 188

façade democracy 165, 167, 171, 173, 176, 178, 182, 184, 186, 202–203, 230, 251

and formal-legal institutions 196

and Golem parties 170

fairness 135

family quarrels 206, 208

in-between feeling 206

Fernandes, Sophia 252

Fico, Robert 166

Fidesz 91, 170, 223

financial crisis, global 14, 19, 27, 68, 118

first party system 91–92, 93, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172

‘flying blind’ syndrome 89

foreign direct investment (FDI) 182, 188

formal democracy 177–178, 180–181

formal institutions 31, 33, 34–35, 87, 92, 95, 180, 255

imported 196

try to dominate public opinion 194

formal-legal institutions 196, 259

formal membership, EU 113

Forward Look project 49–50

foundations of well-being (FWB) 236, 237

fragmentation 254–255

‘freedom fight’ against EU 219–224

Freedom House 22, 177, 199, 223

Freedom of Expression Index 231

Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES) 178–179

‘frozen societies’ 41

Fukuyama, Francis 129

Fundamental Law (Hungary) 220

galloping globalization 27

GDP 11, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239–240, 241, 245

and catching up 46

‘GDP and beyond: Measuring progress in a changing world’ (EC) 237

GDP gap 20, 232, 239, 242–243

Gellner, Ernest 32

generalized trust 133

German Trade Union Confederation 253

Germany 238

Gill, Indermit 230

global competitiveness 200

global crisis 15, 21, 40, 68, 74, 116, 244

and catching up 125–126

and crisis of crisis management 98

decreased social developmental potential in ECE 114

exposed the deepest Europeanization paradox 175

and growing divergence of ECE from EU mainstream 112

and hard populism 153

led to party-political crisis 167

and weaknesses of ECE 113

global financial crisis 14, 19, 27, 68, 118

globalization 12, 21, 27, 98

‘Global Strategy’ (ECouncil) 207

‘A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy’ 102–103, 226

Golem parties 91–92, 170–171

governance 91, 105, 128, 134–135, 163, 189–196, 229

fragmented 88

good 19, 67, 181, 182, 188, 240, 241

governance deficit 90, 182, 186

government deficit 182, 186

governments, weak 88, 89, 188–189

Grabbe, Heather 93, 226

grassroots movements 259

Great Transformation 209

The Great Transformation (Polanyi) 63

Gros, Daniel 155–156

gross national well-being 235

‘Growing unequal’ (OECD) 105

Guardian of the Treaties 215

guided democracy 202

Habermas, Jürgen 137, 252–254

happiness 240, 241, 242

happiness model 235–236

‘Happiness: Towards a holistic definition of development’ (UN) 239

Happy Planet Index 235

hard populism 123, 145, 152, 153, 160, 184–189, 195, 208

and façade democracy 165–166

finding enemies of the population 161

and rise of strong Eurosceptic parties 169

and Visegrad cooperation 208

hard populist elite 123, 138

hard transfer 93

HCLU 221

health care 106

Hickel, Jason 65–66

High-Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress 238

historical memory, politics 134, 147, 163–164, 166, 202

Hochscheidt, Lukas 253

Holloway, Travis 65

horizontal distrust 134

horizontal polarization 53–57, 237, 245, 246

human capital 19, 20, 21, 33, 106, 230, 231, 232, 242

and catching up 246

deficit 233

obstacle for competiveness and democratic performance 114

human deficit 53, 229, 232, 245, 246

Human Development Index (HDI) 20, 234–235

human investment 230

human progress 240

human rights 21

Hungarian revolution, 1956 10

Hungary 7, 91, 94, 170, 180, 210

demolishing liberal democracy 186

and façade democracy 182, 184

and hard populism 165–166

and infringement procedures 218

and refugee crisis 226

and RL violations 183, 214, 219–221, 222, 223–224

SPI ranking 236

and velvet dictatorship 172

and weak governments 189

WHR ranking 244

Huntington, Samuel 28

hybrid neoliberal system 38, 39, 82, 84–86

hyper-globalization 27, 98

identity 21–22, 260, 261

identity crisis 120, 162, 165, 209, 211–212

identity politics 121–122, 161–162, 167, 168, 205, 208

and politics of historical memory 134, 166

ideological-cultural deconsolidation 183

ideological-cultural dimension 67

illiberal democracy 176, 179

illiberalism 177

illiberal regimes 198–199

see also velvet dictatorships

immigration 148, 207, 208

implementation process 192–193

inclusive economic development 241

income 105, 241–242, 244, 246

income gap 52, 138

Indices of Respect for Counterarguments and Range of Consultation 231

industrial areas 242

inequality 68, 105, 194

informal institutions 31, 32, 33, 34–36, 92, 95, 194

and politico-business elite 165

winners 87

information society 234

infringement process 213–214, 215, 218, 220, 222–223

Inglehart, Ronald 167, 248

Innes, Abby 94, 172–173

‘innovative’ societies 248

input legitimacy 134, 135–136, 137, 138, 156, 192

insecurity 56, 106, 134, 244

institutional deficit 24, 31, 33, 191, 196, 200, 244–245

institutional development 20–21

institutional trust 18

institution transfer 182

integration, system 16

intelligentsia 8

interactive governance 128, 135, 229

internal Easternization 119, 152, 246, 247

internal Europeanization 33, 77, 78, 93, 114, 175

internal security 188

internationalization 12

interpersonal trust 18

intimidation 195

issue congruence 89

Jansa, Janez 166

Judicial Constraints on the Executive Index 231

judicial integration 33

judicial power 179

judiciary 185, 222

Juncker Commission 217, 218–219, 225

Juncker paradox 218–219, 225, 226

Kaczynski, Jaroslaw 132, 166, 211

kleptocracy 171, 173

knowledge production 229

Kochenov, Dmitry 216–217

Kondratieff cycles 12

Korosteleva, Elena 109

Krastev, Ivan 118, 154, 161, 163, 164

KSCM party 187

Kucharczyk, Jacek 210–211, 212–213

Kuhelj, Alenka 149, 160

Law and Justice (PiS) 166, 170, 186, 211, 218, 222

Lazowski, Adam 222

the Left 82, 148, 149

legal constitutionalism 35

legal-political system 8, 13, 217

legal-political transformation 29–30, 67

legislative power 179, 184

legitimacy 134, 135–136, 137, 138, 156

legitimacy crisis 219

Lehne, Stefan 212, 226

Liberal Component Index 178

liberal democracy 186, 222

Liddle, Roger 51

life satisfaction 21, 247

‘lifestyle superpower’ 230, 231

Linde, Jonas 199

living conditions 231

long waves, theory of 12

Magalhaes, Pedro 131–132

Mannheim, Károly (Karl) 7

market economy 17, 36

market forces 83–84

Marshall Plan 9

Maslow pyramid 20, 230

Medgyesi, Márton 50

media 176, 180, 185–186, 195, 202

Mediterranean member states 95

Mény, Yves 154

Merkel, Angela 102

Mesežnikov, Grigorij 210–211, 212–213

Michnik, Adam 176

middle class 8, 114, 244

migration 4, 123, 226, 253

military security 100

mobility 41, 243

mobilization, political 89

modernization theory 29–30

Monroe, Kristen 139

multidimensional governance (MDG) 67, 91, 187, 190, 193

multilevel governance (MLG) 67, 91, 187, 190

multinationals 41, 182, 188, 247

Muslims 120

national-conservative parties 150

national-social populism 52, 57, 163–164

national sovereignty 212, 226

nativist corruption 87

nativist state capitalism 164

negative externalities 6, 13, 28, 45, 55, 60, 118, 212

neoconservatism 65

neoliberal hybrid 41, 60–68, 87, 168, 175, 182, 247

politico-business integration of ECE societies 198

tensions between political elite and citizens 193

neo-liberalism 61

neoliberalism 41, 60–62, 64–68, 83–84

neopopulism 68, 152, 153–154, 159

neopopulist sociopolitical paradox 138

‘neutral heterogeneity’ 42, 46

Newton, Ken 127, 132, 133

New World Order (NWO) 4, 12, 13, 27, 28, 98–123, 209, 258

and renewal 257

and strategic design 211

NGOs 185, 202

Norris, Pippa 167

North, Douglass 31

OECD 103–105, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242

Offe, Claus 29, 61, 66, 257

Old World Order (OWO) 12, 27–46, 98, 99, 101, 207, 209, 210

oligarchic politico-business elites 247

oligarchization 87, 88, 91, 92, 118, 164–165, 173

oligarchs 171, 173, 182

opportunity (OPP) 236, 237

Orbán, Viktor 132, 166, 173, 208, 210, 211, 219–221

‘ostentatious’ consumption 87

Our Common Future 229

output legitimacy 134, 135–136, 137, 138, 156, 192

‘over-particization’ 78

participation/participatory deficit 89, 196

participation/participatory paradox 72, 73, 74, 79, 88, 90, 136

participative/participatory society 180, 188, 190, 191, 255

Participatory Component Index 178

parties 78–79, 80, 81, 93–94, 167–168, 259–260

cadre 95

Golem 91–92, 169–172

party participation paradox 78

party programmes 187–188

party state capture 94

party system 76–83

patrimonial capitalism 41

Patterson, Molly 139

Pech, Laurent 216–217

performance democracy 90, 91

Periphery-1 44, 45

Periphery-2 44, 45

permissive tolerance 171

perverse privatization 85–86, 87

Pichelmann, Karl 137

Piketty, Thomas 68

PiS (Law and Justice) 166, 170, 186, 211, 218, 222

Poland 7, 10, 94, 149, 170, 210, 211

and authoritarian rule 180

and façade democracy 182, 184

and hard populism 165–166

and refugee crisis 226

and regionalization 227

and RL violations 183, 218, 221–224

and social deficit 232

SPI ranking 236

and territorial polarization 245

and velvet dictatorship 172

and weak governments 189

WHR ranking 244

Polanyi, Karl 1, 61, 62–64

polarization 245, 247, 254, 255

policy 90, 91

policy DI 43, 46

policy making 191–194

political crisis 10, 71–76, 91, 157, 199, 209, 212, 230, 257

leading to civilizational crisis 91, 231

political demobilization 69, 78, 89

political destabilization 74, 183

political DI 45

political elites 134, 169, 191, 193, 200, 247

political exclusion 196

political globalization 21

political-legal transformation 29–30

political mobilization 89

political oppression 201

political output 192

political participation 17, 34, 44, 73, 80, 132

political participatory deficits 74

political remobilization 78

political science 196–203

political system 18

political transition 18

political-vertical trust 133

politicians 74, 88–89, 119, 172

politico-business-based redistribution 60

politico-business elite 163, 164, 165, 184, 247

politico-business networks 87, 171, 172, 173, 182, 191

politico-business redistribution system 247–248

politics 90–91

politics-centred populism 160

politics of historical memory 147, 163–164, 166

polity 90

polity DI 43

polity divergence 44

polycrisis 112–119, 118, 207, 252

populism 55, 94, 119–121, 122, 123, 137, 138, 153–156, 157, 158–167

at 2009 EP elections 168–169

authoritarian 247, 258

hard 152, 184–189, 195, 208

and politics of historical memory 145

and social inequality 68

populist elites 138, 148, 150, 171, 218–219, 247–248

Porter, Michael 236

post-accession crisis 15, 53, 60, 149

‘post-conditionality approach’ 261

post-neoliberalism 62, 64, 68

post-war modernization 9

poverty 58

power, impotence of centralized 86

‘Prague Spring,’ 1968 10

pre-accession crisis 53

precariat 40, 56, 105, 122, 243

privatization 13, 85–86, 87

problem-solving quality 136

process quality 136, 136–137, 137

product quality 136

professional elite 193

progressive divergence 43

‘Progress on “GDP and beyond” actions’ (EC) 238

project-based redistribution 59–60

propertied class 8

public administration 190, 195–196

public investment 246

public trust 90, 134

Putnam, Robert 129

quality of democracy 199–200

Quality of Government Centre, Gothenburg 200

R&D 119

Raiser, Martin 230

ranking institutions 128–129

recombination theory 38–40

redemocratization 2, 5, 14, 255, 258

redistribution 41, 57–60, 85, 168, 242, 247–248

perverse 88, 117

political 105, 188

reductionist approach 67–68

reform fatigue 175

refugee crisis 98, 102, 118, 147, 162, 207, 211

and confrontation 205

ECU unprepared for large influxes of foreigners 212–213, 225–226

and ‘protecting’ national sovereignty 121, 146, 184

security threat 112, 200

and ‘Stop Brussels campaign’ 220

threat to European culture 120

and US 100

and V4 208

regionalization 205–213, 227

region-specific surveys 23–24

regressive divergence 43–44

regular impact assessment (RIA) 187, 193

relative civilizational crisis 256

relative civilizational deficit 229, 230, 243, 246, 247

relative deficit 30–31, 33, 36

remobilization 160

rentier capitalism 41

repoliticization 160

representation/representative paradox 74, 88, 90

representative consolidation 90

representative democracy 91, 191

resentment, mass 4, 74

responsive parties 153

‘Re-unite EUrope’ 253, 254, 255

reverse wave 28, 102

Riga Declaration 109

Riga Summit 109–110

the Right 82, 148–149

Rodrik, Dani 150

Rohac et al. 166

Rome Declaration 208, 253

Roubini, Nouriel 153

rule of law (RL) 209, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 220–224

Rule of Law Framework (RoLF) 215–217, 218

Rupnik, Jacques 33, 35, 55, 57, 88

Russia 108, 109, 112, 207, 210, 227

Sachs, Jeffrey 229, 239–240, 241

Sargentini Report 223

Scharpf, Fritz 33

Schimmelfennig, Frank 107

Schmidt, Vivien 136

Schweiger, Christian 113–114

second party system 167–174

‘second society’ 10

Second World War 9, 11, 12

secular-rational value structure 248, 249

securitization 109, 208

security 54, 100–101, 102–103, 115, 122, 188, 248, 249

and refugee crisis 112, 200

self-expression 248, 249

Seliga, Juraj 178

shy populism 159

Silander, Daniel 199

Skrzypek, Ania 161

Slovakia 7, 94, 166, 171, 189, 210

and façade democracy 182, 184

SPI ranking 236

and velvet dictatorship 172

WHR ranking 244

Slovenia 166, 171, 189, 208

and façade democracy 182, 184

SPI ranking 236

and velvet dictatorship 172

WHR ranking 244

small and middle-sized enterprises (SMEs) 41

‘smart state’ 242, 258

Smilov, Daniel 154, 163, 164

social capital 17, 21, 33, 106, 114, 126–130, 232, 245

bonding and bridging 134

and catching up 246

and civilizational crisis 230, 231

civil society or state 132–133

deficit 233

and governance 189

and high-trust social environment 229

weak 18

and well-being 240–241

social capture 185

social cohesion 17–19, 56, 69

social consolidation 50, 90, 93, 113, 247

social crisis 51, 58, 114, 161, 209

social deficit 53, 74, 232, 233, 245

social destabilization 73–74, 92

social disintegration 116, 118, 245

social disinvestment 86, 87, 116–117, 188, 246

social distrust 126

Social Europe 253

social exclusion 53, 69, 72, 78, 209

social-horizontal trust 133

social inequality 68, 104–105

social integration 16–17, 21, 69, 242, 245

social justice 57, 93, 255

social mobility 18, 19, 52, 56, 105, 243

social paradox 74, 116

social polarization 20, 48, 71, 82, 84, 104, 254

and anger against West 65

and conspicuous consumption 87

and first and second society 140

horizontal and vertical 53–57, 230

and people marginalized 123

and slow economic growth 64

social policy-based redistribution 57–59

social progress (SP) approach 21, 235, 236, 242, 245

Social Progress Imperative 236

Social Progress Index (SPI) 236–237

social reproduction 19, 231

social responsibility 230

social science research 128–129

social sciences’ concepts 22, 103, 106

social security 52, 56, 115, 200

social solidarity 255

social transition 18, 257

social trust 49, 129, 133

see also trust

social-vertical polarization 245

social welfare 50, 230

see also welfare

society capture 122, 164, 185

socio-economic crisis 74, 116, 148

socio-economic deficit 31, 33

socio-economic destabilization 183

socio-economic developments 51

socio-economic exclusion 196

socio-economic polarization 13, 160

socio-economic transformation 29–30, 67

socio-political polarization 247

socio-political structures 103

socio-political transformations 57

Sofia Declaration 111

Sofia Priority Agenda 111

soft populism 153, 160, 169

soft power 163, 164, 167, 172, 176, 186, 193, 259

soft transfer 93

soft violence 195

solidarity 127, 130, 134, 253, 255

Solidarity Movement 10

Southern crisis 207

Southern Europe/periphery 9, 36, 45

Sovietization 9, 10

Soviet Union 9, 11, 12

spill-over effect 4, 74, 108, 115, 133

Stark, David 37–39

state capture 92, 94, 122, 164, 182, 184–185

state socialism 9, 10, 12, 56

statocracy 164

Stiglitz, Joseph 61, 62–63, 64, 83–84, 234

Stiglitz Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress 237, 238, 239

stocktaking 254

Stolle, Dietlind 127

‘Stop Brussels campaign’ 220

strange bedfellows 84–85

strategic planning, neglecting 187–188

Stratulat, Corina 158

substantial democracy 180–181

substantive democracy 177–178

support 131–132

Surel, Yves 154

survival 248–249

sustainability 229–230

sustainable democracy 258, 261

systemic change 15–19, 58, 229, 231, 232, 243

systemic corruption 82, 171, 191, 193, 200

see also corruption

systemic distrust 125, 134, 137, 245

systemic failure 214, 226

systemic threat 215–216

system integration 16

system justification theory 122

systems theory 134

Szalai-Krausz, Vivien 216

Sztompka, Piotr 32

Szydlo, Beata 161

Tavares Report 214–215

‘there is no alternative’ (TINA) 67

threat, systemic 215–216

throughput legitimacy 136

Timmermans, Frans 220, 224

Tomini, Luca 199

Tóth, István György 50

traditionalization narrative 138, 139–140, 141, 143, 147, 148, 149, 150

in decline periods 142

and populism 145, 146

victory of 144

traditional value system 248, 249

transformation crisis 16, 17, 40, 49, 51–52, 100, 149

transformation power 33, 93

transformation recession 60

transition crisis 15, 51, 60

transparency 136, 137, 187, 192, 194

Treaty on European Union (TEU) 214, 218, 219

trickling-down 51, 58, 117–118, 168

triple approach 45

triple crisis 15–16, 48–49, 50, 181, 255

Trump, Donald 102, 153, 166

trust 17, 18, 21, 33, 92, 200

in the EU 156, 261

OECD reports 105

in politicians 74, 119, 172

public 90, 134

and social capital 127–128, 129–131, 132–133

and systems theory 134–135

UK 217

Ukrainian crisis 107–108, 109, 112, 207, 210, 211

UN 239

uncertainty 40, 52, 86, 129, 209, 259, 260

unemployment 52–53

US

decline 27

and development 239

security threat to the EU 100

SPI ranking 236

weakening of global role 101–102

and well-being 240

V4+1 208

value structure 248

Vandenbroucke, Frank 252

‘varieties of capitalism’ 41

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) project 19–20, 200

V-Dem 177, 178, 191

velvet dictatorships 167, 173, 176–177, 182, 203, 230, 248

and liquidation of the checks and balances system 179–180

as security shield 200

and soft power 172, 186, 259

and V-Dem 178

vertical polarization 53–57, 237, 246

vicious circle model 17–18

Vidra, Zsuzsanna 59, 116

virtuous circle model 17

Visegrad Four (V4) 205, 206–208, 209–213, 226

voluntarist politicians 88–89

wage 233, 242

Warsaw Pact 10

Washington Consensus 62, 182

WEF reports 135, 194, 199, 200

Weiss, Stefani 155

welfare 233, 234, 242, 256

welfare state 14, 54

well-being 20, 21, 105, 106, 116, 230, 231, 233–242, 243

and attitude of ECE governments 244

and attitude of West of the East 256

and catching up 246

extremely low 247

Well-being 2030: A New Vision for ‘Social Europe’ 237

Welzel, Christian 248

the West 6–7, 11–12, 256

West Balkans 206

Western bias 42

Western Europe 11, 61–62, 68, 248–249

Western fallacy 251

Westernization 12

West of the East 54, 55

Wider Europe 107, 110, 205, 207, 210

Wixforth, Susanne 253

workfare society 244

World Bank (WB) 175, 181, 182

World Development Indicators (WDI) 234

World Economic Forum (WEF) 22, 62

World Happiness Report (WHR) 229, 235–236, 237, 239–240, 242, 244

world system transformations 10–14

World Values Survey 248, 249

xenophobia 209

Yalta Agreement 9, 11, 12, 206

Youngs, Richard 111, 154

Zaorálek, Lubomir 164

Zeman, President 187

Zielonka, Jan 33, 35, 55, 57, 88