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The Protection of Geographical Indications

Law and Practice, Second Edition

Michael Blakeney

Encapsulating the most recent changes in the law, this second edition of The Protection of Geographical Indications investigates the European laws which regulate the way that geographical indications can be used in the marketing of agricultural products, food, wines and spirits. Key updates to this comprehensive second edition include two new chapters exploring the impact of Brexit and considering the protection of EU geographical indications outside Europe and of foreign geographical indications within the EU.
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EXTENDED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Michael Blakeney

List of abbreviations

Table of cases

Table of legislation

1.   INTRODUCTION

A.   SCOPE OF THE BOOK 1.04

B.   HISTORY 1.13

C.   DEFINITIONS 1.24

2.   INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS REGIMES

A.   PRECURSORS TO TRIPS 2.01

1.   Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 2.03

2.   Madrid Agreement for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source of Goods 1891 2.11

3.   International Convention on the Use of Appellations of Origin and Denominations of Cheeses (‘Stresa Convention’) 1951 2.16

4.   Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their Registration 1958 2.21

5.   The International Wine Organization 2.32

B.   THE WTO TRIPS AGREEMENT 2.39

1.   Protection of geographical indications 2.40

2.   Geographical indications and trade marks 2.53

3.   Additional protection for geographical indications for wines and spirits 2.63

4.   TRIPS revision 2.84

5.   The TRIPS GIs disputes 2.94

6.   TRIPS enforcement 2.101

7.   TRIPS rights under European law 2.183

C.   GENEVA ACT OF THE LISBON AGREEMENT 2015 2.191

1.   Introduction 2.191

2.   Subject matter 2.192

3.   Competent Authority 2.194

4.   Registration 2.195

5.   Fees 2.208

6.   The Register 2.212

7.   Period of validity of international registrations 2.220

8.   Protection 2.221

9.   Protection in respect of registered AOs and GIs 2.223

10.  Renunciation of protection 2.225

11.  Genericity 2.229

12.  Safeguards in respect of trade marks and business names 2.230

13.  Safeguards in respect of plant variety or animal breed denominations 2.232

14.  Enforcement, procedures and remedies 2.233

15.  Refusal of registration 2.234

16.  Prior use 2.244

17.  Notification of grant of protection 2.248

18.  Safeguards in the case of notification of withdrawal of refusal or a grant of protection 2.249

19.  Invalidation 2.250

20.  Cancellation 2.255

21.  Corrections 2.258

D.   BILATERAL AND PLURILATERAL AGREEMENTS 2.261

3.   PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AND DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND FOODSTUFFS IN EUROPE

A.   INTRODUCTION 3.01

B.   POLICY UNDERPINNING THE REGULATION 3.08

1.   Promotion of agricultural diversity 3.08

2.   Consumer demands 3.09

3.   Fair competition 3.10

4.   Rural development 3.11

5.   Legislative coherence 3.12

6.   External influences 3.15

7.   Coordination of name protection 3.16

C.   OBJECTIVES 3.18

1.   Communication of product characteristics and farming attributes 3.18

2.   Rural development 3.20

3.   Identification of product attributes 3.22

D.   SCOPE 3.24

1.   Agricultural products intended for human consumption 3.24

2.   Excluded products 3.29

3.   Related provisions 3.31

4.   Excluded provisions 3.32

E.   DEFINITIONS 3.33

F.   PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN AND PROTECTED GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 3.34

1.   Objective 3.35

2.   Requirements for protecting designations of origin and geographical indications 3.37

3.   Defining the geographical area of production/protection 3.40

4.   Designation of origin 3.49

5.   Production steps in the defined geographical area 3.50

6.   Raw materials 3.63

7.   Animal feed 3.65

8.   Geographical indication 3.67

9.   Generic indications 3.74

10.  Definition of ‘generic terms’ 3.75

11.  Non-registration of generic terms 3.79

12.  Protection of registered PDOs and PGIs 3.80

13.  Case law 3.83

14.  Names of plant or animal breeds 3.102

15.  Homonyms 3.107

16.  Misleading designations of origin or geographical indications  3.108

17.  Product specification 3.110

G.   REGULATION (EU) NO 1169/2011 ON THE PROVISION OF FOOD INFORMATION TO CONSUMERS 3.113

1.   Relationship with the Foodstuffs Regulation 3.116

2.   Mandatory indication of country of origin or place of provenance 3.117

3.   Ingredients 3.119

4.   Reports on mandatory indications of country of origin or place of provenance 3.120

5.   National measures on additional mandatory particulars 3.128

6.   Commission guidelines on labelling 3.130

7.   Verification of compliance with product specification 3.135

H.   APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION 3.137

1.   Scope of application processes 3.138

2.   Content of application for registration 3.139

3.   Dossier 3.141

4.   Transitional national protection 3.142

5.   Grounds for opposition 3.146

I.   REGISTER OF PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN AND PROTECTED GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 3.148

1.   The Register 3.148

2.   Registration of third country geographical indications 3.149

3.   Form and content of the Register 3.152

4.   List of international agreements 3.153

J.   NAMES, SYMBOLS AND INDICATIONS 3.155

1.   Permitted use of PDOs and PGIs 3.156

2.   Union symbols 3.157

3.   Protection of indications and symbols 3.160

4.   Other symbols 3.161

5.   Collective marks 3.162

6.   Third-country products 3.163

K.   PROTECTION 3.164

L.   RIGHT TO BRING AN ACTION IN RESPECT OF A GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION 3.166

1.   Infringement actions 3.170

M.   ‘IMITATION OR EVOCATION’ 3.180

1.   Defence of good faith registration 3.185

N.   RELATIONS BETWEEN TRADE MARKS, DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 3.186

1.   Legislation 3.189

2.   Case law 3.195

O.   EUROPEAN GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS IN NON-EUROPEAN TRADE MARK PROCEEDINGS 3.206

P.   TRANSITIONAL PERIODS FOR USE OF PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN AND PROTECTED GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS  3.208

Q.   PRESERVED REGISTRATIONS 3.214

R.   TRADITIONAL SPECIALITIES GUARANTEED 3.216

1.   Objective 3.221

2.   Criteria 3.222

3.   Relation to intellectual property 3.225

4.   Exclusion of ‘generic terms’ 3.226

5.   Plant varieties and animal breeds 3.230

6.   Use in another Member State or third country 3.232

7.   Exclusion from registration 3.234

8.   Delegated acts 3.235

9.   Product specification 3.236

10.  Verification of compliance with product specification 3.239

11.  Content of application for registration 3.242

12.  Dossier 3.243

13.  Grounds for opposition 3.244

14.  Register of traditional specialities guaranteed 3.245

15.  Names, symbol and indication 3.247

S.   RESTRICTION ON USE OF REGISTERED NAMES 3.255

1.   Misleading use 3.255

2.   Confusing sales descriptions 3.256

3.   Implementing acts 3.257

4.   Preserved registrations 3.258

5.   Delegated acts 3.260

6.   Simplified procedure 3.261

T.   OPTIONAL QUALITY TERMS 3.268

1.   Objective 3.270

2.   National rules 3.271

3.   Criteria for optional quality terms 3.272

4.   Relation to intellectual property 3.273

5.   Excluded optional quality terms in relation to compulsory marketing standards 3.274

6.   ‘Generic terms’ 3.276

7.   Delegated acts 3.277

8.   Implementing acts 3.278

9.   International standards 3.279

10.  Reservation and amendment 3.280

11.  ‘Mountain product’ 3.282

12.  Product of island farming 3.290

13.  Restrictions on use 3.292

14.  Monitoring 3.294

U.   COMMON PROVISIONS 3.295

1.   Official controls of protected designations of origin, protected geographical indications and traditional specialities guaranteed 3.296

2.   Scope 3.300

3.   Designation of competent authority 3.301

4.   Verification of compliance with product specification 3.305

5.   Surveillance of the use of the name in the market place 3.310

6.   Delegation by competent authorities to control bodies 3.312

7.   Planning and reporting of control activities 3.315

8.   Role of groups 3.317

9.   Right to use the schemes 3.323

10.  Fees 3.326

11.  Scope of application processes 3.327

12.  Application for registration of names 3.328

13.  Eligible applicants 3.331

14.  Grounds of opposition 3.334

15.  Application to Member States 3.336

16.  Member State scrutiny of opposition 3.337

17.  Member State notification of opposition to the Commission 3.340

18.  Publication of opposition by Member State 3.341

19.  Publication of specification by Member State 3.342

20.  Third-country applications 3.344

21.  Language of documents 3.345

22.  Delegated acts 3.346

23.  Implementing acts 3.347

24.  Scrutiny of application for opposition by the Commission 3.348

25.  Publication of opposition by the Commission 3.349

26.  Opposition procedure at the Commission 3.351

27.  Decision on registration 3.364

28.  Scientific Committee 3.368

29.  Amendment to a product specification 3.371

30.  Temporary change in product specification due to natural disasters, etc 3.389

31.  Cancellation 3.395

32.  Transitional rules 3.403

V.   REPEAL OF REGULATIONS 3.405

W.   ENTRY INTO FORCE 3.408

4.   PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AND DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN AND TRADITIONAL TERMS FOR WINES IN EUROPE

A.   INTRODUCTION 4.01

B.   The Wine Regulation 4.08

1.   Introduction 4.08

2.   Scope of the rules concerning designations 4.10

C.   Definitions 4.19

1.   Designation of origin 4.19

2.   Geographical indication 4.22

3.   Production in the demarcated geographical area 4.23

4.   Amendment of lists of wines 4.25

5.   Wines made in areas adjacent to protected areas or in trans-border areas 4.26

6.   Traditional term 4.29

7.   Third countries 4.32

D.   APPLICATION FOR PROTECTION 4.33

1.   Content of applications – technical file 4.33

2.   Specification 4.35

3.   Application for protection relating to a geographical area in a third country 4.45

4.   Preliminary national procedure 4.52

5.   Commission examination procedure 4.59

6.   Receipt of the application 4.64

7.   Submission of a trans-border application 4.67

8.   Admissibility of application for protection 4.73

9.   Scrutiny of the conditions of validity 4.76

10.  Verification of compliance with specifications 4.79

11.  Verification of compliance with specifications in third countries 4.81

12.  Amendments to product specifications 4.82

13.  Objection procedure 4.93

14.  Protection 4.109

15.  Grounds for refusal of protection 4.115

E.   REGISTER 4.126

F.   SPIRITS 4.130

G.   RELATIONSHIP WITH TRADE MARKS 4.131

1.   Registration of trade mark after date of application for a geographical indication 4.131

2.   Registration of trade mark prior to date of application for a geographical indication 4.133

H.   RIGHT TO USE DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION 4.135

1.   Exclusive rights 4.136

2.   Ex officio action by Member States 4.138

3.   Designation of competent control authority 4.139

4.   Declaration by operators 4.142

5.   Certification bodies 4.143

6.   Annual verification 4.145

I.   CANCELLATION 4.159

1.   Procedure – general rules 4.159

2.   Procedure – specific rules 4.161

3.   Cancellation initiated by the Commission 4.163

4.   Admissibility of request for cancellation 4.164

5.   Documents accompanying request for cancellation 4.167

6.   Notification of admissible application for cancellation 4.169

7.   Invitation to file observations and comments 4.170

8.   Decision by Commission in absence of observations 4.172

9.   Basis of the Commission’s decision on cancellation 4.173

10.  Multiple requests for cancellation 4.175

11.  Deletion from the Register 4.177

J.   Conversion of a PDO into a PGI 4.178

1.   Request 4.179

2.   Verification by the Commission 4.180

3.   Rejection by the Commission 4.181

4.   Existing protected wine names 4.184

K.   IMPLEMENTING MEASURES 4.199

L.   TRADITIONAL TERMS 4.200

1.   Definition 4.200

2.   Production 4.202

3.   Applicants for traditional terms 4.205

4.   Application for protection of traditional terms 4.207

5.   Language 4.209

6.   Rules on traditional terms of third countries 4.211

7.   Examination procedure 4.213

8.   Objection procedures 4.232

9.   Protection 4.248

10.  Modification of traditional term 4.253

11.  Enforcement of the protection 4.255

12.  Cancellation procedure 4.256

13.  Existing protected traditional terms 4.273

M.   LABELLING OF WINE AND INDICATIONS OF ORIGIN 4.274

1.   Legislation 4.278

2.   Definitions 4.281

3.   Compulsory particulars 4.284

4.   Indication of the provenance 4.285

5.   Indication of the bottler 4.288

6.   Indication of the bottler, producer, importer and vendor 4.289

7.   Marketing and export 4.298

8.   Indication of the holding 4.300

9.   Derogations 4.305

10.  Presentation of the compulsory particulars 4.308

11.  Optional particulars 4.310

12.  Derogations 4.312

13.  Name of a smaller or larger geographical unit than the area underlying the designation of origin or geographical indication and geographical area references 4.314

14.  Specific rules on wine grape varieties and vintage years for wines without protected designation of origin or geographical indication 4.318

15.  Indication of the Community symbols 4.328

16.  Temporary labelling 4.330

N.   CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES 4.332

1.   Designation of competent authority 4.333

2.   Guarantees of objectivity and impartiality 4.335

3.   Accreditation of certification body 4.336

4.   Evidence to support veracity of grape variety 4.337

5.   Certification tests 4.338

6.   Excluded wine grape varieties 4.343

7.   Mixtures of wines 4.344

8.   Varietal wines 4.345

O.   LANGUAGES 4.347

P.   MARKETING AND EXPORT 4.350

Q.   ENFORCEMENT 4.352

R.   ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS LAID DOWN BY THE PRODUCER MEMBER STATES RELATING TO LABELLING AND PRESENTATION 4.353

S.   PRODUCER AND INTER-BRANCH ORGANISATIONS 4.357

T.   PROTECTION OF WINE GIS UNDER THE REGULATION ON THE COMMON ORGANISATION OF THE MARKETS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 4.362

1.   Definitions 4.363

2.   Applications for protection 4.368

3.   The product specification 4.371

4.   Applicants 4.374

5.   Amendments to product specifications 4.377

6.   Preliminary national procedure 4.406

7.   Admissibility of the Application 4.411

8.   Scrutiny by the Commission 4.415

9.   Objection procedure 4.420

10.  Decision on protection 4.433

11.  Homonyms 4.434

12.  Wine designations, agricultural products and spirit drinks 4.436

13.  Additional grounds for refusal of protection 4.437

14.  Relationship with trade marks 4.439

15.  Protection 4.441

16.  Register 4.445

17.  Cancellation 4.451

18.  Existing protected wine names 4.460

19.  Transitional national protection 4.463

20.  Temporary labelling and presentation 4.464

21.  Restrictions on use of protected designations of origin and protected GIs 4.467

22.  Use of the Union symbol 4.471

23.  Traditional terms 4.472

U.   CASE LAW 4.531

5.   PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AND DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN FOR SPIRITS IN EUROPE

A.   INTRODUCTION 5.01

B.   SUBJECT MATTER AND SCOPE OF REGULATION (EC) NO 110/2008 5.04

1.   Includes geographical indications 5.04

2.   EU connection 5.05

3.   Derogation for third countries 5.06

4.   Definition of spirit drink 5.07

5.   Origin of ethyl alcohol 5.11

6.   Categories of spirit drinks 5.16

7.   General rules concerning the categories of spirit drinks 5.17

8.   Member States’ legislation 5.21

C.   DESCRIPTION, PRESENTATION AND LABELLING OF SPIRIT DRINKS 5.23

1.   Definitions 5.26

2.   Specific rules concerning sales denominations 5.31

3.   Specific rules concerning the use of sales denominations and geographical indications 5.40

4.   Description, presentation and labelling of mixtures 5.51

5.   Specific rules concerning the description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks 5.57

6.   Prohibition of lead-based capsules or foil 5.60

7.   Use of language in the description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks 5.61

D.   GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 5.65

1.   Definitions 5.67

2.   Registration of geographical indications 5.70

3.   Cancellation of a geographical indication 5.106

4.   Generic names 5.112

5.   Homonymous geographical indications 5.114

6.   Established geographical indications 5.115

7.   Alteration of the technical file 5.118

8.   Verification of compliance with the specifications in the technical file 5.119

9.   Use of languages 5.123

10.  Protection of geographical indications 5.124

E.   PROPOSED NEW REGULATION 2019 5.125

1.   Subject matter and scope 5.126

2.   Definitions 5.129

3.   Description and labelling of spirit drinks 5.135

4.   Geographical indications 5.140

F.   PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS – CASE LAW 5.211

1.   ‘Whisky’ 5.211

2.   ‘Cognac’ 5.235

3.   ‘Calvados’ 5.244

G.   RELATION BETWEEN TRADE MARKS AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 5.250

1.   Where registered geographical indication exists 5.250

2.   Registration of trade mark prior to geographical indication 5.251

3.   Registration of geographical indication after trade mark 5.252

4.   Control and protection of spirit drinks by Member States 5.253

6.   TRADE MARKS, COLLECTIVE MARKS, CERTIFICATION MARKS, PASSING OFF AND DOMAIN NAMES

A.   EUROPEAN TRADE MARKS LEGISLATION 6.03

1.   Distinctiveness 6.07

2.   Superseded geographical names 6.21

3.   Acquired distinctiveness of geographical signs 6.22

4.   Case law 6.30

5.   Absolute bars to registration of geographical marks 6.51

6.   Absolute bars aligned with geographical indications protection 6.52

7.   Absolute bar to partially non-registrable signs 6.54

8.   Limitation of the effects of a registered geographical trade mark 6.55

9.   Trade Marks and Protected Geographic Indications (PGIs) or Protected Denominations of Origin (PDOs) 6.73

B.   COLLECTIVE AND CERTIFICATION MARKS 6.85

1.   Community collective marks 6.88

2.   Collective marks 6.117

3.   Certification marks 6.132

4.   Choice between collective and certification marks 6.152

5.   Choice between trade mark protection and geographical indications protection 6.155

C.   RELEVANCE OF TRIPS AND INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF EUROPEAN TRADE MARKS LAW 6.164

1.   Temporal application of the TRIPS Agreement 6.165

2.   Relevant signs 6.167

3.   ‘Existing prior right’ 6.169

4.   Protection of trade names 6.171

D.   UNREGISTERED TRADE MARKS – PASSING OFF 6.174

1.   Elements of the action in passing off 6.175

2.   Geographical marks and passing off 6.177

3.   Geographical marks and protectable reputation 6.183

4.   Geographical marks and product processing 6.188

5.   Genericity 6.191

E.   DOMAIN NAMES AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS 6.193

1.   Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 6.193

2.   Domain names at WIPO 6.198

3.   WIPO DNS panel decisions on geographical domain names 6.205

7.   ENFORCEMENT OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS IN EUROPE

A.   INTRODUCTION 7.01

B.   AVAILABILITY OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES UNDER EUROPEAN LAW 7.06

1.   Knowledge 7.07

2.   Quantification of penalties 7.08

C.   DIRECTIVE 2004/48/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL OF 29 APRIL 2004 ON THE ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS 7.12

1.   Objective and scope 7.12

2.   Measures, procedures and remedies 7.20

D.   SANCTIONS BY MEMBER STATES 7.77

1.   Codes of conduct and administrative cooperation 7.79

2.   Assessment 7.80

3.   Border control (customs) enforcement of intellectual property rights 7.82

4.   Exclusions from the Customs Regulation 7.100

5.   Application of border controls to geographical indications 7.110

E.   ACTION BY THE CUSTOMS AUTHORITIES 7.156

1.   Suspension of the release or detention of the goods following the grant of an application 7.158

2.   Suspension of the release or detention of the goods before the grant of an application 7.168

3.   Inspection and sampling of goods whose release has been suspended or which have been detained 7.178

4.   Conditions for storage 7.181

5.   Permitted use of certain information by the holder of the decision 7.182

6.   Sharing of information and data between customs authorities 7.183

F.   DESTRUCTION OF GOODS, INITIATION OF PROCEEDINGS AND EARLY RELEASE OF GOODS 7.187

1.   Destruction of goods and initiation of proceedings 7.194

G.   LIABILITY, COSTS AND PENALTIES 7.217

1.   Liability of the customs authorities 7.218

2.   Liability of the holder of the decision 7.220

3.   Costs 7.221

4.   Penalties 7.227

H.   EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 7.231

1.   Exchange of data on decisions relating to applications and detentions between the Member States and the Commission 7.233

2.   Data protection provisions 7.241

I.   MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 7.249

1.   Repeal 7.249

2.   Transitional provisions 7.250

3.   Entry into force and application 7.251

8.   THE PROTECTION OF EU GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS OUTSIDE EUROPE AND THE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS IN THE EU

A.   INTRODUCTION 8.01

B.   BILATERAL AND FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 8.05

1.   Agreements on GIs in relation to wines 8.05

2.   Agreements on GIs for spirits 8.41

3.   Agreements on GIs in relation to wines and spirits 8.67

4.   GIs for agricultural products and foodstuffs 8.100

5.   GIs for wines, spirits and foodstuffs 8.120

C.   FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 8.175

1.   Africa 8.175

2.   Asia 8.176

3.   Latin America 8.179

D.   FOREIGN GIs REGISTERED IN THE EU 8.182

1.   Foodstuffs 8.182

2.   Wines 8.184

3.   Spirits 8.184

9.   THE IMPACT OF BREXIT ON GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS PROTECTION

A.   PROTECTED BRITISH GIs 9.01

B.   BREXIT 9.02

C.   UK GI ARRANGEMENTS POST-BREXIT 9.07

D.   EU ARRANGEMENTS CONCERNING UK GIs POST-BREXIT 9.19

1.   Continued protection in the UK of EU GIs 9.20

2.   Registration procedure 9.23

3.   Exhaustion of rights 9.27

E.   FUTURE UK OBLIGATIONS IN RELATION TO GIs 9.28

F.   CONCLUDING COMMENTS 9.29

Bibliography

Index