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The Energy of Russia

Hydrocarbon Culture and Climate Change

Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen

This timely book analyses the status of hydrocarbon energy in Russia as both a saleable commodity and as a source of societal and political power. Through empirical studies in domestic and foreign policy contexts, Veli-Pekka Tykkynen explores the development of a hydrocarbon culture in Russia and the impact this has on its politics, identity and approach to climate change and renewable energy.
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Index

Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen

Arctic 77–91, 104–5

domestic discourse 85–9

exceptionalism 80

foreign discourse 85–9

Arctic paradox 81–2

global 78, 84

local 81

Russian 81

Areva 69

associated petroleum gas (APG) flaring 14, 19, 45, 84

authoritarian rule 4–5, 14, 23–4, 97, 115, 122

Backman, Jouni 72

Bakker, Karen and Gavin Bridge 43

Barboskiny 108, 113

bioenergy 25–6, 64, 118, 121–2

hydropower 10, 70

solar 26–8

wind 26, 28, 120–21, 123

wood 20, 25–6, 51, 64, 118, 121–2

see also renewable energy

biopolitics 29–30, 39–40, 49–50, 52–3

energopower 30, 40, 46, 49, 53

(bio)security 30–31, 40

black carbon 84

budget of Russia 2–3, 5, 8, 98, 117

Castells, Manuel 21, 37

China 27

choke-point geography 21, 43, 74

climate change 24, 78–9, 84–5, 87–8, 93–5, 100–101, 103–4, 109–12, 114–17, 127

conspiracy 105–6, 109, 112

denial 24, 85, 93–6, 100–107, 109–11

global climate policy 24, 106, 109, 112, 117

mitigation 88, 92–3, 96, 105–6, 108–9, 112, 115, 117, 124, 126

positive effects of 103–4, 107, 115

taboo 24–5, 85, 89, 92, 97, 111

Climate Doctrine 93

climate governance 84–5, 105–6, 109, 126

Collier, Stephen 29–30, 40

corporate social responsibility 34, 49–50, 52–4, 81, 89–90

Croatian Migrit Energija 70

Dean, Mitchell 17–19, 38

decarbonisation 65, 125–6

double-speech 85, 87

electricity 27–8, 74–5, 84, 120, 127, 129–30

super-grid 27–8, 129–30

elites 6–7, 13, 33, 35, 52, 98, 118

Empire 4, 15, 127–8

see also Great Power

energy dependence 2–4, 7, 16, 22, 60, 82

Finland’s 61–5, 74–5

hydrocarbon 22, 81, 98

energy leverage 21–2, 44, 56–62, 67

energy mix of Russia 9–10, 119–20

Energy Roadmap 2050 12

energy sector 9, 60, 62

energy security 58, 62–3, 65

Energy Security Doctrine of Russia 126

Energy Strategy of Russia 12, 57, 79, 119–20

energy superpower 22–3, 43–4, 46, 56, 58–9, 87, 98, 110

energy transition 7–9, 26–7, 65, 74, 117, 123, 126–9

energy weapon 58–60

environmental consequences 44–5, 88, 91

EU–Russia Energy Dialogue 12, 26, 99

EU–Russia energy relations 11–12, 56–8, 60, 98–9, 125–6

Fennovoima 64, 67–9

nuclear power plant project 65–71, 73–4

Finnish–Russian energy relations 60–76

foreign policy 22, 24, 59, 62, 67–68, 71, 73, 75, 80, 97–8

Fortum 63, 67, 70–71, 123

Foucault, Michel 28–9, 46, 54

Gazifikatsiya Rossii 10, 29–31, 39–40, 42, 46–7, 50–51, 53–5, 121, 124

promotional video 34–47, 89

Gazprom 13, 33–4, 38–42, 49–54, 57, 64, 70, 89–90, 124

GDP see budget of Russia

gender 37–8

global cooling 96, 100, 105, 107

global warming 84, 100, 107–8, 115

see also climate change

Gordon Kihot 109, 112

Gore, Al 105

governmentality 23, 28–31

geo-governmentality 31, 38, 46, 114, 117–18

of hydrocarbon culture 23, 31

Great Power 15, 48–9, 53, 55, 66, 75, 81, 89, 110, 112, 127

Arctic 87

ecological 15–6, 124–5, 127, 129

Green Giant 122, 127–8

Haglund, Carl 72–3

Hanhikivi 1 66–7, 69

see also Fennovoima nuclear power plant

Hanhikivi 2 68

Holod 107–8, 113

hydrocarbon culture 16, 21–4, 47, 84, 88–92, 117–18, 124–6, 128–9

hydrocarbon superpower see energy superpower

indigenous peoples 44–5, 81, 83

Inter RAO 75

Izvestiya 99–100, 103, 105

Jacques, Peter 94–5, 111

Karelia 50–55

Karol’, Igor’ and Andrei Kiselev 101, 106–7

KHL (Continental Hockey League) 49, 73

Kirienko, Sergei 69

Kivinen, Markku ix, 97

Kyoto protocol 85, 93

labour union 6

Laruelle, Marlene 78, 83

Legg, Stephen 38–9, 46

materiality

of energy 2–3, 30–31, 37, 43, 46, 110

of hydrocarbons 18, 46

Medvedev, Alexander 49

Medvedev, Dmitry 41, 93, 96–7

Ministry of Energy 12, 116, 125–6

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 86, 88

Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment 12

Ministry of Sports 50

Mitchell, Timothy 6

modernization 40–42, 96–7, 128

national identity 1, 4, 15, 22–3, 39–40, 46, 48, 58–9, 78, 82–3, 98

National Security Strategy 118, 125

Neste 63–4, 74

Nord Stream I 11, 57

Nord Stream II 11, 57, 63, 72

Northeast Passage 79

Northern Delivery system 121

Novatek 13, 34

nuclear power 65–7, 72–3, 75

nuclear sector 65–7

oil price 56–7, 79, 81

oil spills 19, 83

Ost-Politik 72

parastatal company 13, 33, 121–2

Paris Agreement 85, 112

path dependency 17, 65, 79, 118–19, 127

Pavlenko, Vladimir 101, 105–6

periphery 4, 8, 10, 17–18, 20, 27, 31, 35, 42, 50

Perm region 54

permafrost thaw 116

pipelines 8, 13, 19, 21, 42–3, 53, 57

pollution 19, 45, 83–4, 88

Putin’s regime 5, 7, 22–4, 27, 58–9, 73, 78, 82, 86–7, 90, 93–4, 97–9, 110, 114–15, 118, 122, 128

renewable energy 8–9, 10–12, 25–8, 74, 117–30

legal framework in Russia 120–21, 125

see also bioenergy

resource curse 2, 18

Rosatom 14, 64, 66–7, 69, 75, 123

Rosneft 13–14, 49

Rossiiskaya Gazeta 86, 88, 99–100, 103

Russian Academy of Sciences 93

Rutland, Peter 22–3, 35, 57

sanctions 65, 67, 79–80, 86

Scholten, Daniel 26–7, 129

security of supply 60, 62, 65

shale hydrocarbons 98–9

Smith Stegen, Karen 59–60

Sochi Olympic Games 48–9

soot see black carbon

Soviet Union 5–6, 36, 40, 48, 78, 119

spatiality of energy 3, 17–18, 20, 37

sport 48–55

Stubb, Alexander 71, 74–5

sustainability 24, 89–90, 122, 129

systemic leakage of carbon 18–19, 25, 82

see also pollution

Toshiba 69

Transneft 21, 64

Ukraine 59, 65–6, 68–9, 75

uranium 11, 64, 67, 73–4

Wallinheimo, Sinuhe 72–3

Washington, Haydn and John Cook 107

West, confrontation with 6, 24, 44, 58–9, 80, 86, 126

Western hegemony 106, 109

Yamal 35–6, 42, 44–5, 81

Year of the Environment 25, 29, 88, 122–3