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Art Law and the Business of Art

Martin Wilson

Art Law and the Business of Art is a comprehensive and practical guide to the application of UK law to transactions and disputes in the art world. Written by Martin Wilson, an art lawyer with over 20 years’ experience in the field, it outlines and explains the relevant law and how the art business operates in practice, as well as offering a discussion of the most pressing ethical questions involving artworks.
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Table of legislation

Martin Wilson

European Union

Conventions & Treaties

European Convention on Human Rights 1950
art 10268

Directives

Directive 93/7/EEC of 15 March 1993 on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State [1993] OJ L74/74226, 2367
Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art [2001] OJ L272/3228

Regulations

Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein [1997] OJ L61/1262
Regulation (EC) No 939/97 of 26 May 1997 laying down detailed rules concerning the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein [1997] OJ L140/9262
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation/GDPR) [2016] OJ L119/1389, 392, 394
art 4(11)391
art 7(3)391
arts 12–18391
art 333923
art 34393
arts 44–50394
Regulation (EU) 2019/880 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on the introduction and the import of cultural goods [2019] OJ L151/1257, 3078
art 3307
art 4(4)3078
art 5(2)308

United Kingdom

Statutes

Auctions (Bidding Agreements) Act 192715960
s 1(1)160
Auction (Bidding Agreements) Act 1969160
s 1(1)160
s 1(2)160
s 3160
Bills of Sale Act 1878122
Bribery Act 201069, 380, 384
s 1380, 382
s 2380, 382
s 3381
s 4381
s 5381
s 6382
s 7384
s 7(2)384
s 11384
British Library Act 1972220
British Museum Act 1963221, 330
s 4320
Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 200539
Consumer Credit Act 19741234
Consumer Protection Act 1987
Sch 1 para 5141
Consumer Rights Act 2015109, 112, 11516, 18991, 194
s 1(1)116
s 2(3)116, 194
s 2(5)112
s 9190
s 9(4)190
s 11(1)189
s 17(4)190
s 49(1)116
s 50116
s 57116
s 62116
s 62(1)189, 191
s 62(4)191
s 62(5)191
s 64(1)(a)192
s 64(2)192, 194
s 64(5)192
s 68192
Sch 2 Pt 1117, 192
Copyright Act 195612
s 4(2)12
s 4(4)12
Copyright Designs and Patents Act 19883, 4, 12, 1617, 20, 22, 267
Ch IV (ss 77–89)20
s 1(1)8
s 43
s 4(2)(b)3, 4
s 9(3)20
s 11(1)12
s 11(2)12
s 12(2)11
s 16(3)3, 15
s 173, 13
s 17(3)14
s 183, 1315
s 18(3)(a)15
s 18(3)(b)15
s 18A13
s 2013
s 213
s 2214
s 23(a)14
s 23(b)14
s 23(c)14
s 2414
s 28B16
s 29(1)16
s 29(1C)16
s 3016
s 30A17
s 3126
s 4526
s 4626
s 5026
s 5726
s 6317
s 66A26
s 7822
s 7923
s 8023
s 80(2)(b)23
s 80(4)23
s 84(2)25
s 84(4)25
s 84(5)25
s 84(6)25
s 8526
s 85(1)26
s 8627
s 8721
s 88(1)267
s 9422
s 9522
s 9727
s 97(2)35
s 97A38
s 9927
s 10027
s 17820
Sch 1 para 22(1)21
Criminal Damage Act 1971389
s 138
s 339
Criminal Finances Act 2017378
Pt 3 (ss 45 and 46)378
s 45(2)379
s 45(5)379
Criminal Justice Act 1988
s 1602712
Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008
Pt 5 (ss 63–67)2712
s 63(6)272
Cultural Property (Armed Conflicts) Act 2017233, 237, 24042, 246
s 17(1)2412
s 17(6)241
Data Protection Act 1998389
Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003234, 2379, 241
s 1238
s 1(1)239
s 1(3)238
s 2238
s 2(2)238
s 2(3)238
s 3(1)239
s 5(1)239
Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act 1976267
Enterprise Act 2002161
s 188(2)(f)161
s 188(5)161
s 188A161
s 190161
Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013161
Financial Services and Markets Act 2000124
Foreign Limitation Periods Act 1984
s 1(1)217
s 2(2)217
Holocaust (Return of Cultural Objects) Act 200922021, 224
Human Rights Act 1998268
Indecent Displays (Control) Act 19812712
s 4(b)272
s 6(a)273
Inheritance Tax Act 1984 Sch 32847
Limitation Act 198014041, 222
s 2134, 141, 21617
s 3141
s 3(2)135, 141, 216
s 4141, 216
s 4(2)142, 21617
s 4(4)142
s 4(5)(i)–(ii)141
s 21141
s 27A(2)142
s 32(1)(b)141
s 32(1)(c)141
Misrepresentation Act 1967155
s 2(1)155, 351
s 3155, 351
Mock Auctions Act 19611578
s 1157
Museums and Galleries Act 1992329
National Heritage Act 1980
s 16(1)325
Obscene Publications Act 195927072
s 1270
s 4271
Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990258
s 1(5)261
s 7258
Policing and Crime Act 2017378
Proceeds of Crime Act 2002142, 3712, 375
s 327371
s 328371
s 329371
s 333376
Protection of Children Act 19782713
Public Order Act 198639, 275
s 17276
s 18276
s 18(5)276
Racial and Religious Hatred Act 200639, 276
s 1275
Pt 3A s 29J275
Sale of Goods Act 1979104, 10810, 112, 189
s 12(5)190
s 12(5A)112, 190
s 13(1)109, 154, 189, 351
s 13(1A)109, 154
s 13(2)154
s 14(2)110, 190
s 14(2C)(a)190
s 14(2C)(b)190
s 21(1)1334, 214
s 22(1)136
s 23134, 137
s 24136
s 25137
Sale of Goods (Amendment) Act 1994136
Senior Courts Act 1981
s 33(2)364
Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982108, 154, 189
s 1(1)11011, 190
s 1(2C)111
s 3(2)351
s 7(1)109, 154
s 1373, 146, 352
Sch 2109, 154
Torts (Interference with Goods) Act 1977
s 5(4)142
Treasure Act 19962423
s 1243
Tribunals, Courts and Enforcements Act 2007225, 323
Pt 6224
s 134(1)225
s 134(2)225
s 135226
Unfair Contract Terms Act 197711213, 116, 191, 193
s 2113
s 2(1)113, 189, 193
s 2(2)113
s 3113
s 3(1)113
s 8113
s 8(1)113, 189, 193
s 11113
Sch 2114, 193

Statutory Instruments

Artist’s Resale Right Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/346)2830, 32
reg 3(1)29
reg 4(1)29
reg 4(2)29
reg 531
reg 6(1)31
reg 731
reg 831
reg 8(1)31
reg 931
reg 10(3)31
reg 12(2)32
reg 12(3)(a)30
reg 12(3)(b)30
reg 12(4)30
reg 1332
reg 1433
Sch 229
Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (SI 1998/3132)339
r 31.15364
Pt 36 (rr 36.1–36.30)33940
Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 (SI 1999/2083)124
art 60C124
art 60F124
Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 (SI 2013/3134)7880, 1689
Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 (SI 2000/2334)78
Control of Trade in Endangered Species (Enforcement) Regulations 1997 (SI 1997/1372)262, 265, 267
Duration of Copyright and Rights of Performances Regulations 1995 (SI 1995/3297)11
Export Control (Syria Sanctions) (Amendment) Order 2014 (SI 2014/1896)240, 378
Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Regulated Activities) Order (Amendment) (No 2) Order 2013 (SI 2013/1881)124
Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety) Regulations 1988 (SI 1998/1324)276
reg 4277
Iraq (United Nations) Sanctions Order 2003 (SI 2003/1519)239
art 8(1)239
art 8(2)240
art 8(3)239
art 8(4)240
Money Laundering Regulations 2007 (SI 2007/2157)36970
reg 5370
reg 17370
reg 17(1)(b)370
reg 17(2)370
Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (SI 2008/1277)1578
reg 478, 169
reg 5789
reg 1980, 170
reg 2978
reg 3078
Sch 180
Sch 280

International

Conventions

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 192820
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1954226, 2323, 2412
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 19732627
App I2634
App II2634
App III2634
UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970226, 2336, 2389, 251, 257, 314, 32021
UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects 19952356
art 1236
art 3.3236
art 3.4236
art 3.5236
art 6236

Miscellaneous

Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession Committed in Territories under Enemy Occupation or Control 1943208
Museum Association Code of Ethics 2015314
Principle 2.4314
Principle 2.5314
Principle 2.8315
Principle 2.9315
Principle 2.10315
Principle 3.1316
Principle 3.4316
Principle 3.6316
Washington Conference on Holocaust Era Assets 1998209