Full access

No extract available

A glimpse at the landscape of European LNG regasification (2017). European Gas Hub, 6 December.
About us – History (n.d.). Novatek.
Additional gas supply via Power of Siberia could total 5–10 bcm per year – Miller (2018). Interfax, 4 October.
Aissaoui, A. (2016). Algerian Gas: Troubling Trends, Troubled Policies. Working Paper NG 108, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Aizhu, C. and H. Gloystein (2019). China gas demand to surge in 2019, but maybe not enough to sop up LNG glut. Reuters, 8 April.
Analysis: Japan fails to divert LNG away from Europe (2011). Reuters, 24 March.
Analysts raise EU carbon price forecasts on expectations of market reform (2017). Reuters, 11 October.
Antitrust (2012). Antitrust: Commission opens proceedings against Gazprom. European Commission press release, 4 September.
Arctic LNG 2 and Siemens Sign Equipment Supply Contract (2019). Novatek press release, 1 February.
Argus Media (n.d.). Coal.
Aslund, A. (2019). The real Russian candidate in Ukraine’s presidential race,Atlantic Council, 24 March.
Aune, F. R., R. Golombek, A. Moe, K. E. Rosendahl and H. H. Le Tissier (2017). The future of Russian gas exports, Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy, 6 (2), 111–34.
Baltic LNG scheduled for completion in 2020 (2015). Interfax, 26 June. Barker, A., S. Pignal and G. Wiesmann (2011). Gazprom raided in EU antitrust investigation., 27 September.
Barsukov, Yu. (2015). ‘Газпром вышел с газовой биржи (Gazprom quit the gas exchange). Kommersant, 27 January.
Barsukov, Yu. (2016). Za svobodu otvetyat [[They’ll] have to answer for freedom]. Kommersant, 12 February.
Barsukov, Yu. (2018a). Это просто вредная идея по существу (It is just a harmful idea in essence). Kommersant, 25 July.
Barsukov, Yu. (2018b). Газпром сделал трубный выбор (Gazprom has made a pipeline decision). Kommersant, 22 November.
Barsukov, Yu. (2019a) Севморпуть накачивают газом (The Northern Sea Route is pumped up with gas). Kommersant, 29 January.
Barsukov, Yu. (2019b). Новатеэк торопится сжижать (Novatek rushes to liquefy). Kommersant, 22 May.
Barsukov, Yu. and Ye. Chernenko (2014). И газ воздам (And we reward by gas). Kommersant, 11 April.
Barsukov, Yu., T. Dyatel and A. Larintseva (2018). Возьмут проводами и трубами (Taking wires and pipes). Kommersant, 24 July.
Barsukova, S. Yu. (2016). Новый российский капитализм: Институционализация коррупции (The new Russian capitalism: Institutionalization of corruption), Россия и современный мир (Russia and the contemporary world), 4, 21–39.
Black, J., N. Hashimzade and G. Myles (2009). Oxford Dictionary of Economics (3rd edn), Oxford University Press.
BP Energy Outlook (2019). BP.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy (2015, June). Report, 64th edition.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy (2018).
Bradshaw, M. (2009). The Kremlin, national champions and the international oil companies: the political economy of the Russian oil and gas industry. Geopolitics of Energy, 31 (5), 2–14.
BRIEF-Russia’s Gazprom calls Nord Stream-2 pipeline risks ‘hypothetical’ (2018). Reuters, 6 February.
Brooke, J. (2006). Russia rattles Asia with attack on Shell’s Sakhalin-2 project. Bloomberg, 19 October.
Bros, T. (2016). Has Ukraine scored an own-goal with its transit fee proposal? Energy Comment, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Burgansky, A. (2010). Renaissance Capital Oil and Gas Yearbook 2010: Stand and Deliver. Moscow: Renaissance Capital.
Burke, J. (2015). How Russian energy giant Gazprom lost $300bn. The Guardian, 7 August.
Butler, N. (2015). The EU is quietly shaping its energy union., 13 April.
Bypassing Ukraine will be costly for Gazprom, say analysts (2015). Euractiv, 17 July.
Can Gazprom deliver Power of Siberia to China by 2020? (2017). Wood Mackenzie, 6 September.
Chayvo field (n.d.) Exxon Neftegaz.
Chazan, G. (2014). Europe seeks alternative gas supplies., 27 April.
Cheap gas creates new LNG-import markets in Asia (2018). LNG World Shipping, 8 January.
Chen, M. (2014). The Development of Chinese Gas Pricing. Working Paper NG 89, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Chiacu, D. (2015). US adds Russian oil field to sanctions list. Reuters, 7 August.
China gas talks move up a gear (2018). Argus FSU Energy, 20 September.
China imposes 10% tariff on US LNG (2018). Oil and Gas Journal, 21 September.
China leads the growth in projected global natural gas consumption (2017). Energy Information Administration, Washington DC, 25 October.
China lends Russia $25 billion to get 20 years of oil (2009). Reuters, 17 February.
China LNG imports set to hit record in November, push prices up (2017). Reuters, 28 November.
China tariff threatens US liquefied natural gas boom (2018). Wall Street Journal, 18 September.
China’s old gas allies fail to meet demand boom in winter (2018). Bloomberg, 25 February.
China’s Silk Road Fund to obtain 9.9% stake in Novatek’s Yamal LNG (2015). Reuters, 3 September.
Clark, P. (2017). UK generates a day’s electricity without coal., 22 April.
CNOOC completes last two modules for Yamal LNG (2017). LNG World News, 17 August.
CNPC buys stake in Novatek’s Yamal LNG project (2013). Bloomberg, 5 September.
Code (2017). Rosneft Corporate Governance Code, approved by Rosneft Board of Directors Resolution, 15 November.
Council of the European Union (2017). Opinion of the Legal Service, 27 September 2017.
Croatia sets funds aside for Krk LNG terminal (2019). LNG World News, 31 January.
Crooks, E. (2014). Russia tensions risk higher gas prices for Europe, says Eni boss., 17 March.
Crooks, E. (2017). The global importance of China’s oil imports., 25 September.
Crooks, E. and S. Pfeifer (2012). US coal exports to Europe soar., 3 October.
Danish Parliament (2017). L 43 Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om kontinentalsoklen. Lovforslag som vedtaget 30 November (L 43 Proposal for a Law Amending the Act on the Continental Shelf. Bill as adopted 30 November).
Denmark asks Nord Stream 2 to consider third route option for gas pipeline (2019). Reuters, 28 March.
Dezem, V. (2019). With an eye on record flow from Russia, gas market braces for slump. Bloomberg, 3 January.
Dienes, L. and Th. Shabad (1979). The Soviet Energy System: Resource Use and Policies. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston.
Duma (2017). Законодательное обеспечение программы газификации России обсудили в Комитете по энергетике (Legal provision for Russia’s gasification programme discussed in the Energy Committee), 22 November.
Dutch to lower Groningen gas production as much as possible – govt. (2018). Reuters, 16 January.
Dzyadko, T. (2018). Тимченко перевел 19% НОВАТЭКа на новую компанию (Timchenko transferred 19% of Novatek to new company). RBK, 12 July.
Eastern Gas Program (2016). Gazprom.
Electronic (2012). Электронная торговая площадка ОАО Газпром: цели создания, механизмы функционирования, эффективность (Electronic Trading Platform of JSC Gazprom: creation goals, functioning mechanism, effectiveness). Elcomrevue, 13 April.
Energy Ministry, Gazprom issue new statements on long-awaited gas contracts with China (2018). Interfax, 12 September.
Energy Strategy (2009). Energeticheskaya strategiya Rossii na period do 2030 goda (Energy Strategy of Russia until 2030). Moscow: Ministry of Energy.
Energy Strategy (2017). Energeticheskaya strategiya Rossii na period do 2035 goda – proekt (Energy Strategy of Russia until 2035 – Draft). Version 1 February. Moscow: Ministry of Energy.
EU ends antitrust case against Gazprom without fines (2018). Reuters, 24 May.
EU offers Russia, Ukraine mediation in talks on gas transit after 2019 (2017). Interfax, 5 October.
EU Statement of Objections (2015). Press release, 12 June.
EU states approve plans for stricter limits on pollutants from power plants (2017). Reuters, 28 April.
EU tells Bulgaria to stop work on Gazprom’s South Stream (2014). Wall Street Journal, 3 June.
EU utilities may press for more price cuts from Gazprom (2012). Fitch Ratings, 9 November.
Europe Beyond Coal (n.d.). European Coal Plant Database.
European Commission (2017a). Antitrust: Commission invites comments on Gazprom commitments concerning Central and Eastern European gas markets. Press release, 13 March.
European Commission (2017b). Recommendation for a Council Decision authorising the opening of negotiations on an agreement between the European Union and the Russian Federation on the operation of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, COM(2017) 320 final 09 June.
European Commission (2017c). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2009/73/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas. COM(2017) 660 final, 8 November 2017.
European Commission (2018). EU–U.S. Joint statement of 25 July: European Union imports of U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) are on the rise. Press release.
Exclusive: Exxon, Rosneft to build LNG plant with Japanese, Indian partners – sources (2018). Reuters, 23 October.
Fadeeva, A. (2015). Gazprom nashel podderzhku u Minenergo (Gazprom finds support in the Ministry of Energy). Vedomosti, 23 December.
Fairless, T. and G. Steinhauser (2015). EU files formal charges against Gazprom for abuse of dominant position. Wall Street Journal, 22 April. Farchy, J. (2016). Chinese lend $12bn for gas plant in Russian Arctic., 29 April.
Farchy, J. and C. Oliver (2014). Putin loses face with cancellation of ‘pharaonic’ South Stream., 2 December.
Fattouh, B. and L. El-Katiri (2012). Energy Subsidies in the Arab World. Arab Human Development Report Research Paper Series, UNDP.
Federal Law (2006). No. 117-F3 Ob eksporte gaza [Concerning export of gas], 18 July, amended 30 November 2013.
First Yamal LNG Cargo Shipped to Spain (2018). World Maritime News, 22 June.
Foy, H., R. Toplensky and A. Ward (2017). Gazprom to receive funding for Nord Stream 2 pipeline., 24 April.
Gaddy, C. and B. W. Ickes (2002). Russia’s Virtual Economy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Gaddy, C. and B. W. Ickes (2015). Putin’s rent management system and the future of addiction in Russia, in S. Oxenstierna (ed.), The Challenges of Russia’s Politicized Economic System. Abingdon: Routledge..
Gas auction (n.d.). Gazprom Export.
Gas came to exchange (2007). Interview with Alexander Petrov, head of the gas market development department of Mezhregiongaz. Securities Market Magazine, no. 329.
Gas infrastructure expansion (n.d.). Interaction with regions.
Gas pipeline Nord Stream 2 (n.d.). Gazprom – Projects.
Gas trading takes off as SPIMEX fine-tunes market mechanisms (2017). Nefte Compass, 26 January.
Gazprom (1999). Annual Report 1998. Moscow: Gazprom.
Gazprom (2005). Annual Report 2004. Moscow: Gazprom.
Gazprom (2006). Annual Report 2005. Moscow: Gazprom.
Gazprom (2010). Gazprom and Novatek sign co-operation agreement for LNG exports. Press release, 18 June.
Gazprom (2013a). Gazprom adopts final investment decision for Vladivostok LNG. Press release, 21 February.
Gazprom (2013b). Gazprom and consortium of Japanese companies sign MoU on Vladivostok LNG project. Press release, 22 June.
Gazprom (2014). Gazprom and Shell sign roadmap for third train of Sakhalin 2 project. Press release, 23 February.
Gazprom (2015). Alexey Miller: Project for gas supply from Russia’s Far East strengthens the strategic partnership between Gazprom and CNPC. Press release, 3 September.
Gazprom (2017). Annual Report. Moscow: Gazprom.
Gazprom (2018). Gazprom in Figures 2013–2017.
Gazprom (2019). Decision made to implement major gas processing and liquefaction project near Ust-Luga (2019). Gazprom press release, 29 March.
Gazprom (n.d.) Transmission.
Gazprom and FAS agreed to double the exchange trading turnover (2017). Interfax business, 8 July.
Gazprom and Shell address Sakhalin II expansion and Baltic LNG project (2017). Gazprom press release, 1 June.
Gazprom, BASF, E.ON, ENGIE, OMV and Shell sign Shareholders Agreement on Nord Stream 2 project (2015). Gazprom press release, 4 September.
Gazprom brings energy security of Kaliningrad Region to new level (2019). Gazprom press release, 8 January.
Gazprom drops Baltic LNG (2008). Reuters, 7 February.
Gazprom Export (n.d.). LNG.
Gazprom Export (2013). Gazprom Export on arbitration ruling on price review with RWE Supply and Trading CZ. Press release, 28 June.
Gazprom fears Yamal LNG may hurt pipeline gas supply to Europe (2017). Eurasia Daily, 6 December.
Gazprom flags Shtokman gas shift; Europe wary (2012). Reuters, 7 April. Gazprom in figures (2013–2017).
Gazprom launches European sales platform (2018). Argus Media, 22 August.
Gazprom Mezhregiongaz Moskva (n.d.). Оптовые цены на газ в 2018 (Gross prices for gas in 2018).
Gazprom not giving strict timeframes for signing new contracts with China (2018). Interfax, 25 October.
Gazprom, Novatek fail to reach deal on LNG ventures (2013). The Moscow Times, 7 June.
Gazprom offered to raise price for Sakhalin-1 gas (2013). Interfax, 8 October.
Gazprom offers below market for Exxon Sakhalin-1 gas (2008). Reuters, 2 July.
Gazprom prepares to get status of commodity delivery operator for gas on SPIMEX (2017). Interfax, 21 November.
Gazprom press release (2018). Over four thousand settlements across Russia provided by Gazprom with gas between 2005 and 2017. Press release, 2 October.
Gazprom says Yuzhno-Kirinskoye field reserves comparable to Shtokman (2013). Platts, 3 June.
Gazprom Strategy Presentation (2015). Gazprom Investor Day: Gas Business, slides 33 and 35.
Gazprom to limit gas trading on SPIMEX due to problems with gas consumption metering (2016). Interfax, 5 May.
Geropoulos, G. (2018). Russia’s western route to China may jeopardise
Gazprom’s supplies to Europe. New Europe, 14 September.
Golomolzin. A. (2018) Нельзя дерегулировать цены, если не отлажена надлежащим образом работа коммерческой инфраструктуры (Impossible to deregulate prices if the commercial infrastructure has not been organized in a correct way). Federal Anti-Monopoly Service, 17 October.
Golomolzin, A. (2019) О принимаемых мерах по развитию конкуренции на рынках газа в Российской Федерации (Concerning measures taken for development of competition in the gas markets of the Russian Federation).Federal Anti-Monopoly Service, 1 March.
Gorst, I. (2014). Rosneft and Gazprom: two behemoths battle it out., 2 July.
Government of the Russian Federation (1998). Resolution No. 865, 30 July, On the introduction of amendments in Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated March 7, 1995; No. 239, On measures to normalize state price (tariffs) regulation. Electronic Fund of Legal, Normative and Technical Documentation.
Griffin, R. (2013). Russia’s Yamal LNG to fully market LNG from project, take FID regardless of export rights. Platts, 22 May.
Groningen gas production to drop by 75% by 2023 (2018). Reuters, 3 December.
Gudkov, A. (2007). Газовая биржа идет на рекорд (Gas exchange heads towards record high). Kommersant, 20 December.
Gudkov, A. (2009). Газовая биржа потеряла актуальность (Gas exchange lost its relevance). Kommersant, 2 June.
Gyetvay, M. (2013). Russia’s natural gas frontiers: Harnessing the energy of the Far North: Novatek presentation, Russia and CIS 1-1 Conference, London, 11–12 November.
Hall, M. (2018). The Future of Norwegian Gas Supply. Working Paper NG 127, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Hart, M. (2016). Central Asia’s oil and gas now flows to the East. The Diplomat, 18 August.
Heather, P. (2012). Continental European Gas Hubs: Are They Fit for Purpose? Working Paper NG 63, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Heather, P. (2015). The Evolution of European Traded Gas Hubs. Working Paper NG 104, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Heather, P. and B. Petrovich (2017). European Traded Gas Hubs: An Updated Analysis on Liquidity, Maturity and Barriers to Market Integration. Oxford Energy Insight No. 13, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Hedlund, S. (2014). Putin’s Energy Agenda. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.
Henderson, J. (2011). The Pricing Debate over Russian Gas Exports to China. Working Paper NG 56, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Henderson, J. (2013). Competition for Customers in the Evolving Russian Gas Market. Working Paper NG 73, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Henderson, J. (2015). Competition for customers in the evolving Russian gas market. Europe-Asia Studies 67 (3), 345–69.
Henderson, J. (2017). Russian LNG: Progress and Delay in 2017. Oxford Energy Insight No. 40, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Henderson, J. (2018). Russia’s Gas Pivot to Asia: Another False Dawn or Ready for Lift Off? Oxford Energy Insight No. 40, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Henderson, J. and T. Mitrova (2016). Energy Relations between Russia and China: Playing Chess with the Dragon. Working Paper WPM 67, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Henderson, J. and A. Moe (2017). Russia’s gas ‘Triopoly’: implications of a changing gas sector structure. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 58 (4), 442–68.
Henderson, J. and S. Pirani (2014). The Russian Gas Matrix: How Markets are Driving Change. Oxford University Press/Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Hill, F. and C. Gaddy (2015).Mr. Putin: Operative in the Kremlin. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Hodgson, C. (2018). Trump lashes out at Germany as ‘captive of Russia’., 11 July.
Högselius, P. (2013). Red Gas: Russia and the Origins of European Energy Dependence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Honoré, A. (2014). The Outlook for Natural Gas Demand in Europe. Working Paper NG 87, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Honoré, A. (2017). The Dutch Gas Market: Trials, Tribulations and Trends. OIES Paper NG 118, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Hornby, L. (2017). China gas shortages spread after botched coal conversion., 12 December.
Hornby, L. and J. Anderlini (2014). China and Russia sign $400bn gas deal., 21 May.
Hovland. K. M. (2014). Gas terminal plans helped Lithuania negotiate lower price from Gazprom. Wall Street Journal, 28 May.
Hume, N. (2016). Surging price of coking coal reflects China’s muscle., 22 Sept.
IEA (2014). World Energy Outlook 2014. Paris: OECD.
IEA (2015). Medium Term Gas Report 2015. Paris: OECD.
IEA (2017). World Energy Outlook 2017. Paris: OECD.
IEA (2018). World Energy Outlook 2018. Paris: OECD.
IEA (2019). World Energy Statistics and Balances. Paris: OECD.
In China–Russia gas deal, why China wins a little more (2014). Fortune Magazine, 20 June.
Interview (2018). SPIMEX focuses on Russian gas market reforms. Nefte Compass, 9 August.
Investor Day (2011). All you need is gas: Gazprom Investor Day Presentation.
Investor Day (2017). Gazprom Investor Day Presentation.
Investor Day (2018). Gazprom Investor Day Presentation.
Investor Day (2019). Gazprom Investor Day Presentation, 28 February.
Joint Statement by President Donald J. Trump and President Andrzej Duda of the Republic of Poland (2018). White House Press release, 18 September.
Jopson, B., D. Sevastopulo and E. Crooks (2017). Trump looks to lift LNG exports in US trade shift., 22 June.
Kalyukov Ye and T. Dzyadko (2018). Глава Total попросил у Путина право на экспорт газа в Европу по трубе (Head of Total asked Putin for the right to export gas to Europe by pipeline). RBC, 25 May.
Kirkman, T. (2018). 3rd Russian LNG shipment to USA to arrive 26th July. The Oil Price, 25 July.
Kiselyova, M. and J. Jones (2008). Gazprom drops Baltic LNG. LNG Journal, 8 February.
Klimenko, O. (2018). Газпром вспомнил про ‘Владивосток СПГ’ (Gazprom came to remember Vladivostok LNG),, 4 July.
Kobolev, A. (2015). Interview Andriy Kobolev, CEO Naftogaz: Gazprom breaches EU law by blocking reverse flow to Ukraine,, 4 March.
Komitet (2018). Комитет Государственной Думы по энергетике рекомендовал к отклонению законопроект о внесении изменений в статью 3 Федерального закона Об экспорте газа в части экспорта СПГ. (The State Duma Energy Committee rejects law proposal on change of Article 3 in the Federal law ‘On gas exports’). Novosti komiteta, 8 February.
Konkurentsiya segodnya (2017). Национальный план развития конкуренции, тарифная политика и торговые сети (National plan for development of competition, tariff policy and trading networks), 2 May.
Krajewski, A. and W. Szary (2014). German and Polish gas operators report lower supply from Russia. Reuters, 10 September.
Krechetova, A. and Yu. Kotova (2019). В рейтинге богатейших россиян по версии Forbes сменился лидер (In Forbes’ rating of richest Russians the leader has changed). Vedomosti, 5 March.
Kruglov, A. (2017). Gazprom Investor Day: Finance.
Kruglov, A. (2018). Gazprom Investor Day: Finance.
Krysiek, T. (2007). Agreements from Another Era: Production Sharing Agreements in Putin’s Russia, 2000–2007. Working Paper WP 34, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Kryukov, V. and A. Moe (2013). The Russian natural gas sector, in M. Alexeev and S. Weber (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy. Oxford University Press, 363–82.
Kryukov, V., M. Sagers and V. Shmat (1995). The extraction and distribution of resource rent from oil and gas sector in the Russian economy. Post-Soviet Geography, 36 (6), 389–425.
Ledesma, D. (2013). East Africa Gas – The Potential for Export. Working Paper NG 74, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Legal Service (2018). Opinion of the Legal Service: Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC – compatibility with UNCLOS. JUR 96 ENER 88 CODEC 301, 6738/18. Brussels, 1 March.
Letter from President Barroso to President Putin (2014). European Commission Press release database, 17 April.
Lithuania to pay more for Norwegian LNG than Russian gas (2014). Reuters, 13 November.
LNG Allies – The U.S. LNG Association (n.d.). Vision, mission, programs.
Loe, S. P. (2018). Lead, now, go! (LNG): the Shtokman field and Gazprom’s challenging partnership with Total and Statoil. Post-Communist Economies, 30 (6), 755–74.
Loe, S. P. (2019). Clash of realities: Gazprom’s reasoning on the EU gas trade, Europe-Asia Studies, DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2019.1635569.
Luhn. A. and T. Macalister (2014). Russia signs 30-year deal worth $400bn to deliver gas to China. The Guardian, 21 May.
Lukoil (2017). Annual Report.
Lunden, L. and D. Fjaertoft (2014). Government Support to the Oil and Gas Industry in Russia: A Case Study Analysis of the Yamal LNG and Prirazlomnoe Projects. Geneva/Oslo/Moscow: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Machan, T. R. (1988). Beyond Hayek: A Critique of Central Planning. Atlanta, GA: Foundation for Economic Education.
Management Report (2017). Gazprom.
Mastepanov, A. M. (2015). Energeticheskoe sotrudnichestvo v novykh geopoliticheskikh usloviyakh (Energy cooperation under new geopolitical conditions). Energetika i Geopolitika, 1, 13-23.
Medvedev, D. (2009). Медведев обещал к 2015 году завершить газификацию села (Medvedev promises to complete gasification of the countryside by 2015). Kommersant, 21 June.
Melling, J. M. (2010). Natural Gas Pricing and its Future: Europe as the Battleground. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Merkel says Nord Stream 2 not possible without clarity for Ukraine (2018). Reuters, 10 April.
Mezhregiongaz (n.d.). Газификация регионов России (Gasification of Russia’s regions).
Mikhelson, L. (2018). Совещание по вопросам развития Арктики (Meeting [with the Prime Minister] on Arctic issues), Sabetta, 11 December.
Miller, A. (2010). Oral comments on shale gas, 10 June. Link to video at
Miller, A. (2012). Alexey Miller moderates 27th meeting of European Business Congress Presiding Committee. Gazprom press release, 6 December.
Miller. A. (2015a). Speech at conference ‘Europe and Eurasia: Towards the New Model of Energy Security’, 13 April.
Miller: Gazprom to co-operate with Shell on basis of asset exchange, potential greatly expanded. (2015b). Interfax, 26 June.
Minenergo (2009). Минэнерго разработало проект постановления о реал-изации газа с использованием биржевых технологий (The Ministry of Energy develops a draft resolution on gas trading using exchange technologies). Regnum, 1 April.
Minenergo (2018). Об отрасли (About the sector).
Mitrova, T. (2013). Russian LNG: The long road to export. Paris: IFRI Russia/NIS Centre.
Mitrova, T. (2015). Russia-Northeast Asia energy trade and investment: Opportunities and challenges. Honolulu: East-West Center.
Moe, A. (2010). Russian and Norwegian petroleum strategies in the Barents Sea. Arctic Review on Law and Politics, 1 (2), 225–48.
Moe, A. (2014). The Northern Sea Route: Smooth sailing ahead? Strategic Analysis, 38 (6), 837-55.
Moe, A. and A-K Jørgensen (2000). Offshore mineral development in the Russian Barents Sea. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 41 (2), 98–133.
Moe, A. and O. S. Stokke (2019) Asian countries and Arctic shipping: policies, interests and footprints on governance. Arctic Review on Law and Politics, 10, 24–52.
Mordyushenko O. (2007). Газ на сутки вперед. Торги на бирже предлагается проводить ежедневно (Gas for the day ahead. Exchange trading is proposed to be conducted daily). Kommersant, 18 October.
Moscow Declaration of the GECF (2013). Second Gas Summit of the Heads of State and Government. Gas Exporting Countries Forum. Moscow, 1 July.
Moscow wants domestic market gas competition (2017). Argus Media, 28 August.
Murphy, J. (2019). Total bid for Arctic LNG-2 stake hits regulatory hurdle. Newsbase, 27 February.
Naftogaz (2019). Natural gas consumption and import in Ukraine.
New rules for Russian gas trading considered (2018). Nefte Compass, 25 January.
Nord Stream Gas Pipeline Project and its Strategic Implications (2007). Directorate General for Internal Policies – Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Brussels: European Parliament, p.2.
Nord Stream AG (2014). Secure Energy for Europe: The Nord Stream Pipeline Project 2005–12. Zug.
North African gas exports to Europe fall via all routes (2017). Interfax, 7 February.
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (2018). Resource report – Exploration.
Novak (2018). Новак рассказал об убыточности контрактов Газпрома с Украиной (Novak tells about Gazprom’s loss-making contracts with Ukraine). Vedomosti, 6 March.
Novatek (2017). Трансформация в глобальную газовую компанию 2018–2030 гг. (Transformation into a global gas company 2018–2030). Novatek corporate strategy day, 12 December.
Novatek (2018). Management Discussion and Analysis of Q3 2018 Results.
Novatek (2019). NOVATEK Closes Arctic LNG 2 Transaction. Press release, 22 July.
Novatek (n.d.). Business.
Novatek and China’s CNPC sign LNG supply deal (2014). The Moscow Times, 20 May.
Novatek Spuds First Well at the North-Obskiy License Area (2018). Novatek Press release, 27 July.
Novatek to export LNG from Gydan Peninsula (2014). Rusmininfo, 14 October.
Novatek to make investment decision on Arctic LNG-2 project in the second half of 2019 (2018). Reuters, 24 May.
Novatek to revise LNG production strategy soon, raise target from 57mm to 70mm tonnes by 2030 – Mikhelson (2019). Interfax, 22 February.
Oettinger, G. H. and S. I. Shmatko (2010). Joint Report EU–Russia Energy Dialogue 2000–2010: Opportunities for our future Energy Partnership. Presented on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the EU–Russia Energy Dialogue by European Commissioner for Energy Günther H. Oettinger and Minister of Energy Sergey I. Shmatko. Brussels/Moscow, November.
Oil and Gas Authority (2017). UKCS Oil and Gas Production Projections.
Olearchyk, R. (2018). Ukraine’s Naftogaz claims $2.56bn legal victory over Russia’s Gazprom., 28 February.
Oliver, C. (2014). Ukraine crisis hardens Brussels stance on Gazprom pipeline., 5 May.
OPAL Gas Transport (2018).The OPAL Network.
Option of including Rosneft LNG project in Sakhalin-1 not under discussion – minister. (2015). Interfax, 13 April.
O’Sullivan, S. (2018). China’s Long March to Gas Price Freedom. Working Paper NG 138, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Pashkovskaya, I. (2011). Энергетическая политика европейского союза в отношении России (The energy policy of the European Union with regard to Russia). Analytical reports, No 5. Moscow: MGIMO University.
Perechen (2018). Перечень поручений по развитию топливно-энергетического комплекса Дагестана (List of assignments for development of the fuel and energy complex of Dagestan) from the President of the Russian Federation, 29 November.
Peskov, D. (2018). Kremlin: US Congress resolution against Nord Stream 2 another attempt to hinder project. TASS, 12 December.
Petro-Canada, Russia’s Gazprom eye LNG supply, regasification joint venture (2004). Natural Gas Intelligence, 13 October.
Pirani, S. (2007). Ukraine’s Gas Sector. Working Paper NG 21, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Pirani, S. (2018). Russian Gas Transit through Ukraine after 2019: The Options. Oxford Energy Insight No. 41, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Pirani, S. and K. Yafimava (2016). Russian Gas Transit through Ukraine Post-2019: Pipeline Scenarios, Gas Flow Consequences, and Regulatory Constraints. OIES Paper NG 105, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Plan (2018). План мероприятий (‘дорожная карта’) по развитию конкуренции в отраслях экономики Российской Федерации и переходу отдельных сфер естественных монополий из состояния естественной монополии в состояние конкурентного рынка на 2018 – 2020 годы (Plan for measures (‘road map’) for development of competition in sectors of the economy of the Russian Federation and transfer of some spheres of natural monopolies from the status of natural monopoly to status of competitive market). Order of the Government of the Russian Federation 16 August No. 1697-r.
Podobedova, L. (2015). Rosneft’ napisala plan razdela ‘Gazproma’ v trekh chastyakh (Rosneft has written a plan to divide Gazprom in three parts). RBK, 31 August.
Poseidon, I. G. (n.d.). Our company.
Pravosudov, S. (2011). Alexander Medvedev: ‘Profit is our priority’.
Project – The Turkstream Pipeline (n. d.).
Putin, V. (2013). Выступление на рабочем заседании глав государств и правительств стран – участниц Форума стран – экспортёров газа (Speech at working meeting of head of states and governments – participants in the Forum for Gas Exporting countries), 1 July.
Putin, V. (2017). Совещание по вопросам развития проектов производства сжиженного природного газа (Conference on questions concerning development of projects for production of liquefied natural gas), 8 December.
Reisinger, W. M., Zaloznaya. M and V. L Hesli Claypool. (2017). Does everyday corruption affect how Russians view their political leadership? Post-Soviet Affairs, 33 (4), 255–275. DOI: 10.1080/1060586X.2016.1227033.
Resolution (2013). Постановление Правительства РФ от 30.12.2013 N 1314 (ред. от 12.04.2018) Об утверждении Правил подключения (технологического присоединения) объектов капитального строительства к сетям газораспределения, а также об изменении и признании утратившими силу некоторых актов Правительства Российской Федерации (Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation 30.12.2013 (version 12.04.2018) Concerning confirmation of rules for connection (technological connect) of objects of capital construction to gas distribution networks, and also about change and confirmation of lost force of some acts of the Government of the Russian Federation).
Ria-Novosti (2014). “Роснефть” может получить доступ к “Силе Сибири”, считают аналитики i (“Rosneft may get access to Power of Siberia,” analysts think), 1 July.
Rogers, H. (2015). The Impact of Lower Gas and Oil Prices on Global Gas and LNG Markets. Working Paper NG 99, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Rogers, H. (2017). The Forthcoming LNG Supply Wave: A Case of ‘Crying Wolf’. Oxford Energy Insight No. 4, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Rosneft (2016). Rosneft Gas Business. Presentation. October. Slide 6. On file with the authors.
Rosneft (2017). Annual Report.
Rosneft abandons planned Pechora LNG project (2018). Kallanish Energy, 7 September.
Rosneft and Alltech Finalized the Creation of the Joint Venture with the Scope of Gas Business Development in the Nenets Autonomous District (2015). Press release from Pechora LNG, 25 December.
Rosneft and ExxonMobil extended agreement on implementation of the Far East LNG project (2014). Rosneft press release, 23 May.
Rosneft begins buying gas on SPIMEX; prices rise on reduced offers, rising demand (2017). Interfax, 1 September.
Rosneft challenges Gazprom monopoly to export Russian pipeline gas (2014). Reuters, 7 March.
Rosneft’s Sakhalin LNG plant passes preliminary feasibility study – governor (2014). Interfax, 6 June.
Royal Dutch Shell (2015). Gazprom set to build global strategic alliance with Shell. Press release, 20 June.
Russia and China claim success at Yamal LNG (2017). The Maritime Executive, 15 December.
Russia begins natural gas trading at SPIMEX (2014). Offshore Engineer, 24 October.
Russia, China remain at odds over gas routes (2010). Interfax, 11 October.
Russia: Total Signs Definitive Agreements for Entry into Arctic LNG 2 (2019). Total Press release, 5 March.
Russia wants to continue gas transit through Ukraine – Energy Ministry (2019)., 25 March.
Russian gas market reformers track EU experience (2018). Nefte Compass, 9 August.
Russian Gas Society (2012). Российское газовое общество выступает за организацию биржевой торговли газом на базе МБНК (Russian Gas Society stands for exchange gas trading on the base of Interregional Oil and Gas Complex Exchange). BigPower Electric, 24 April.
Russian gas supplies to China via Power of Siberia to start in December 2019 (2017). Gazprom press release, 4 July.
Russian government not currently considering splitting up Gazprom (2017). Interfax, 27 November.
Russia’s gas fight with Ukraine (2014). BBC News, 31 October.
Russia’s gas king taunts crumbling Europe over China pipeline coup (2014). Daily Telegraph, 23 May.
Russia’s Gazprom says offshore part of Turkish Stream is complete (2018). Reuters, 19 November.
Russia’s Gazprom to supply gas to China from the end of 2019 in sign of tighter energy ties (2017). South China Morning Post, 5 July.
Russia’s Novatek inks MOU with Japan’s Saibu for Asia-Pacific LNG (2018). SP Global, 27 December.
Russia’s Novatek delivers two Yamal LNG cargoes via NSR to China (2018). LNG World News, 19 July.
Russia’s Novatek, S. Korea’s Kogas Sign LNG Agreement (2018). Asian Oil and Gas, 22 June.
Russia’s Sakhalin LNG plant ships landmark cargo to Japan (2018). LNG World News, 27 June.
Sakhalin-1 LNG plant to reduce state revenue under PSA – Audit Chamber (2015). Interfax, 16 January.
Sakhalin II (n.d.). Gazprom.
Sakhalin III (n.d.). Gazprom.
Sberbank (2014).Russian Gas Atlas. Moscow: Sberbank Investment Research.
Sberbank (2017). Russian Oil and Gas: Marking Territory. Sberbank CIB Investment Research, May.
Sberbank (2018). Russian Oil and Gas: Tickling Giants, Sberbank CIB Investment Research, May.
Seddon, M. (2017). Russia plans to weaken rouble with forex sales., 3 February.
Šefčovič, M. (2016). Speech by Vice President Maroš Šefčovič: ‘Nord Stream II – Energy Union at the crossroads’, Brussels, 6 April. European Commission press release.
Seleznev, K. (2008). Gas supply to the domestic market. Electronic Trading Platform Operation. Gazprom press conference, 17 June.
Seleznev, K. (2018). Gas supply to domestic market. Executing Russian regions gasification program, presentation 20 June 2018.
Sen, A. (2017). India’s Gas Market post-COP21. Working Paper NG 120, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Serbia to start building TurkStream pipeline stretch in March or April 2019 (2019). Reuters, 7 February.
Shadrina, E. and M. Bradshaw (2013). Russia’s energy governance transitions and implications for enhanced cooperation with China, Japan, and South Korea. Post-Soviet Affairs, 29, 461–99.
Shatalov, I. (2016). Presentation at Gazprom Investor Day, 1 February.
Shell bows to Kremlin pressure on Sakhalin project (2006). New York Times, 11 December.
Shell exits Gazprom-led LNG project in Russia (2019). Reuters Business News, 10 April.
Shell LNG Outlook (2019). Royal Dutch Shell.
Sheppard, D. and H. Foy (2017). US and Russia step up fight to supply Europe’s gas., 3 August.
Shiryaevskaya, A. (2018). Russia looks to hydrogen as way to make gas greener for Europe. Bloomberg, 8 November.
Skjærseth, J. B., P. O. Eikeland, L. H. Gulbrandsen and T. Jevnaker (2016). Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies: Decision-Making, Implementation and Reform. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Skorlygina, N. (2018). Все были счастливы и грабили потребителя Глава ФАС Игорь Артемьев о государственно-монополистическом капитализме (Everybody was happy and robbed the customer: the Head of FAS about state monopoly-capitalism). Kommersant, 25 September.
Skrynnikov, S. (2018). Работа идет по графику при ежегодном расширении объема задач (Work goes according to schedule with annual increase in the volume of work). Gazovaya Promyshlennost, special issue 3.
Sokovkin, A. (2019). Преступное сообщество оказалось семейным (A criminal association turned out to be family). Kommersant, 1 February.
South Stream project closed over Bulgarian position, Turkey set to be Gazprom’s new route south (2014). Interfax Russia and CIS Oil and Gas Weekly, 27 November–3 December.
SPIMEX (n.d.). Saint-Petersburg International Mercantile Exchange.
Staalesen, A. (2017a). Construction machinery arrives to Novatek’s new plant area in Murmansk. The Barents Observer, 15 June.
Staalesen, A. (2017b). Russian legislators ban foreign shipments of oil, natural gas and coal along Northern Sea Route. The Barents Observer, 26 December.
Stacey, K. (2014). William Hague warns against ‘creeping oligarchisation’ of Balkans., 15 April.
Statement (2014). Statement by the President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy and the President of the European Commission in the name of the European Union on the agreed additional restrictive measures against Russia. European Council press release, 27 July.
Stern, J. (2005). The Future of Russian Gas and Gazprom. Oxford University Press/Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J. (2007). Is There a Rationale for the Continuing Link to Oil Product Prices in Continental European Long-Term Gas Contracts? Working Paper NG 19, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J. (2009a). Future Gas Production in Russia: Is the Concern about Lack of Investment Justified? Working Paper NG 35, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J. (2009b). Continental European Long-Term Gas Contracts: Is a Transition Away from Oil Product-Linked Pricing Inevitable and Imminent? Working Paper NG 21, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern J. (2014). Russian responses to commercial change in the European gas market, in J. Henderson and S. Pirani (eds), The Russian Gas Matrix: How Markets are Driving Change. Oxford University Press/Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 50–81.
Stern, J. (2017).Challenges to the Future of Gas: Unburnable or Unaffordable? Working Paper NG 125, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J., S. Pirani and K. Yafimava (2009). The Russo-Ukrainian Gas Dispute of January 2009: A Comprehensive Assessment. Oxford Energy Comment, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J. and H. Rogers (2014). The Dynamics of a Liberalised European Gas Market: Key Determinants of Hub Prices, and Roles and Risks of Major Players. Working Paper NG 94, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J., S. Pirani and K. Yafimava (2015). Does the Cancellation of South Stream Signal a Fundamental Reorientation of Russian Gas Export Policy? Oxford Energy Comment, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stern, J. and K. Yafimava (2017). The EU Competition Investigation of Gazprom’s Sales in Central and Eastern Europe: A Detailed Analysis of the Commitments and the Way Forward. Working Paper NG 121, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Stiglitz, J. E. (1994). Whither Socialism? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tariff indexation for gas transport by independent cos put back until next year (2017). Interfax, 16 August.
TASS (2019). ‘Роснефть’ в 2018 году нарастила добычу углеводородов на 1,3% (Rosneft in 2018 increased production of hydrocarbons by 1.3%). February.
Tata, S. (2017). Deconstructing China’s Energy Security Strategy, The Diplomat, 14 January.
Terazono, E. (2017). China and India drive Asian LNG price to 10-month high., 7 November.
Todorova, M. (2017). ФАС изучила биржевую деятельность поставщиков газа (FAS studies exchange activity of gas suppliers), Izvestiya.iz, 21 March.
Toplensky, R. (2017). Tusk adds voice to calls for greater EU control over Nord Stream 2., 5 June.
Toplensky, R. (2019). EU finalises tougher rules on $9.5bn Russia–Germany gas pipeline., 13 February.
Toporkov, A. and A. Chervonnaya (2019). Газпром не исключает задержки строительства Северного потока – 2 (Gazprom does not exclude delays in the construction of Nord Stream 2), Vedomosti, 29 April.
Toporkov, A. and V. Petlevoy (2019). Saudi Aramco прекратила переговоры об участии в СПГ-проекте Новатэка (Saudi Aramco broke off negotiations on participation in Novatek’s LNG project). Vedomosti, 23 May.
Toporkov, A. and D. Simakov. (2018). “Газпром” предложено лишить трубы и монополии на экспорт. Такой сценарий реформы отрасли подготовил ЦСР Алексея Кудрина (It is proposed to deprive Gazprom of pipes and export monopoly. Such a scenario for reform of the sector has been prepared by Aleksey Kudrin’s TsSR). Vedomosti, 27 September.
Total buys 20% stake in Yamal LNG (2011). LNG World News, 6 October. Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (n.d.). TAP at a glance.
TurkStream (2018). Gas pipeline. Gazprom – Projects.
TurkStream (n.d.) Gazprom Export, projects.
Two Chinese companies join Novatek’s Arctic LNG 2 project (2019). Offshore Energy Today, 25 April.
Ukaz (2017). Об основных направлениях государственной политики по развитию конкуренции (Concerning fundamental directions of state policy for development of competition). Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, 21 December No. 618.
Ukaz (2019). Доктрина энергетической безопасности Российской Федерации (Energy Security Doctrine for the Russian Federation). Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, 13 May 2019 No. 216.
Ukraine and Russia both claim victory in gas dispute (2017). Reuters, 22 December.
Ukraine expects revenue of 3 billion USD from Russian gas transit in 2017 (2017)., 25 October.
Ukraine’s reverse gas flow from Europe artificial – Putin (2014)., 1 July. 2014.
Umbach, F. (2010). Global energy security and the implications for the EU. Energy Policy, 38 (3), March.
US Congress (2018). H.Res. 1035 (115th): Expressing opposition to the completion of Nord Stream II, and for other purposes.
US Department of the Treasury (2014). Announcement of Expanded Treasury Sanctions within the Russian Financial Services, Energy and Defense or Related Materiel Sectors. Press release, 12 September.
US envoy warns sanctions still an option against Nord Stream 2 (2018). Reuters, 13 November.
US Navy proposing major show of force to warn China (2018). CNN, 4 October.
US supports Ukraine against Russia, Trump tells foreign minister (2017). USA Today, 11 May.
US Treasury (2018). Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 243 of the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act of 2017 Regarding Interagency Efforts in the United States to Combat Illicit Finance Relating to the Russian Federation, 6 August.
V. Putin podpisal zakon, razrushayushchiy monopoliyu Gazpromu (2013). В.Путин подписал закон, разрушающий монополию Газпрома (V. Putin signed law destroying Gazprom’s monopoly). RBK, 2 December.
Vedeneeva, A. and Yu. Barsukov (2018). СПГ-танкерам не закроют Севморпуть (The Northern Sea Route will not be closed for LNG carriers). Kommersant, 25 October.
Vedeneeva, A., Yu. Barsukov and T. Dyatel (2019). Российский газовоз нагрузили ценой (Russian LNG carrier loaded for a price). Kommersant, 12 February.
Wang, J., S. Mohr, L. Feng, H. Liu and G. Tverberg (2018). Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth. Energy Policy, 88, 389–401.
Weaver, C. (2013). Rosneft gains control of Itera., 2 July.
Will European LNG reloads continue? (2013). Timera Energy, 26 August.
Xi–Putin summit in Vladivostok highlights common front against US (2018). Nikkei Asian Review, 11 September.
Yafimava, K. (2013). The EU Third Package for Gas and the Gas Target Model: major contentious issues inside and outside the EU. NG 75, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Yafimava, K. (2016). The revived Turkish Stream: what, where, and when? Oxford Energy Forum 107, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Yafimava, K. (2017) The Council Legal Service’s Assessment of the European Commission’s Negotiating Mandate and What It Means for Nord Stream 2. Oxford Energy Insight No. 19, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Yafimava, K. (2019). Gas Directive Amendment: Implications for Nord Stream 2. Oxford Energy Insight No. 49, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Yamal LNG cargo heads to India (2018). LNG World News, 27 March.
Yamal, Russia gas megaplan, becomes symbol of sanctions defiance (2014). Reuters, 19 September.
YCharts (n.d.).
Yermakov, V. (2018). Shrinking Surplus: The Outlook for Russia’s Spare Gas Productive Capacity. Oxford Energy Insight No. 42, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Zakon (1999). Федеральный закон О газоснабжении в Российской Федерации (Federal law ‘About gas supplies in the Russian Federation’). With revisions as of 3 August 2018, Article 25.
Zakon (2013). Federal’ny zakon ot 18.07.2006 N 117-F3 (red. 30.11.2013) Ob eksporte gaza (Federal law of 18.07.2006 No 117-F3 (amended 30.11.2013) On gas exports).
Zasedanie (2013). Zasedanie Komissii po voprosam strategii razvitiya TEK i ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti 13 Fevralya 2013 (Session of The Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel-Energy Complex and Environmental Safety, 13 February 2013). Verbatim record.
Zygar, M. (2016). All the Kremlin’s Men: Inside the Court of Vladimir Putin. New York: Public Affairs.