Climate and Trade Policy
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Climate and Trade Policy

Bottom-up Approaches Towards Global Agreement

Edited by Carlo Carraro and Christian Egenhofer

The difficulty of achieving and implementing a global climate change agreement has stimulated a wide range of policy proposals designed to favour the participation of a large number of countries in a global cooperative effort to control greenhouse gas emissions. This significant book analyses the viability of controlling climate change through a set of regional or sub-global climate agreements rather than via a global treaty.
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Chapter 3: Do Regional Integration Approaches Hold Lessons for Climate Change Regime Formation? The Case of Differentiated Integration in Europe

Noriko Fujiwara and Christian Egenhofer


3. Do regional integration approaches hold lessons for climate change regime formation? The case of differentiated integration in Europe Noriko Fujiwara and Christian Egenhofer There are difficulties involved in characterizing as ‘likely’ a scenario of a global climate change regime in which either a top-down or a bottom-up approach dominates. A top-down approach envisages the formation of a global coalition at the outset. This scenario addresses a situation in which a global agreement on emission reductions is enforced. Profits that the coalition yields are distributed among participants through global or in some cases, sub-global agreements. A bottom-up approach reverses the process. There is evidence of both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Following the US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol framework (topdown), entry into force of the protocol depended on the political will of Russia to ratify it. It is fair to suggest that it was the EU bilateral offer of a package including trade and human rights issues which eventually moved Russia, following Ukraine, to join in the Kyoto Protocol, which the EU has identified as its policy priority. The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, which aims at closer coordination of a number of key countries grouping in the sphere of climate change, is another example. Bottom-up approaches can not only be an important complement to the Kyoto Protocol negotiations but can also constitute the implementation stage of climate change politics. As the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and its framework remains at...

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