Bottom-up Approaches Towards Global Agreement
Edited by Carlo Carraro and Christian Egenhofer
Chapter 3: Do Regional Integration Approaches Hold Lessons for Climate Change Regime Formation? The Case of Differentiated Integration in Europe
3. Do regional integration approaches hold lessons for climate change regime formation? The case of diﬀerentiated integration in Europe Noriko Fujiwara and Christian Egenhofer There are diﬃculties involved in characterizing as ‘likely’ a scenario of a global climate change regime in which either a top-down or a bottom-up approach dominates. A top-down approach envisages the formation of a global coalition at the outset. This scenario addresses a situation in which a global agreement on emission reductions is enforced. Proﬁts that the coalition yields are distributed among participants through global or in some cases, sub-global agreements. A bottom-up approach reverses the process. There is evidence of both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Following the US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol framework (topdown), entry into force of the protocol depended on the political will of Russia to ratify it. It is fair to suggest that it was the EU bilateral oﬀer of a package including trade and human rights issues which eventually moved Russia, following Ukraine, to join in the Kyoto Protocol, which the EU has identiﬁed as its policy priority. The Asia-Paciﬁc Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, which aims at closer coordination of a number of key countries grouping in the sphere of climate change, is another example. Bottom-up approaches can not only be an important complement to the Kyoto Protocol negotiations but can also constitute the implementation stage of climate change politics. As the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and its framework remains at...
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