Edited by Christopher J. Coyne and Rachel L. Mathers
Chapter 22: Three’s Company? Towards an Understanding of Third-Party Intervention Effectiveness
David Carment and Martin Fischer 22.1 INTRODUCTION When we consider the word “effectiveness” we often think of “measurement” as an associated term to help us better understand the conditions under which a particular kind of action leads to a specific kind of outcome. The idea that effectiveness can be “isolated,” “measured” and “assessed” comes from the understanding that there is a real-world, and proven way of achieving a specific outcome or achieving a precise effect. More specifically, effectiveness is something that is understood as existing in fact, having the power or ability, to create a specific end state and having a capability that has demonstrated itself to be appropriately matched to an objective, goal or end state. Using such an approach, authors such as Esman (1995), Licklider (1995), Diehl, Reifschneider and Hensel (1996), Lund (1996), Kleiboer (1996), Regan (1996) and Walter (1997) among others, have all provided extensive and varied definitions of the term effectiveness in order to understand third-party intervention success and failure. Taken in the context of third-party intervention, for the purposes of this chapter, there are a number of important questions that arise when we consider the issue of effectiveness. For example, is the effectiveness of third-party intervention simply about achieving a specific end goal, or end state, or do other parameters and activities, such as process and context matter? If effectiveness is just about understanding what works in the real world, what then is the appropriate place of theory, either as a basis for establishing evaluative...
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