The Handbook on the Political Economy of War
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The Handbook on the Political Economy of War

Edited by Christopher J. Coyne and Rachel L. Mathers

By defining political economy and war in the broadest sense, this unique Handbook brings together a wide range of interdisciplinary scholars from economics, political science, sociology, and policy studies to address a multitude of important topics. These include an analysis of why wars begin, how wars are waged, what happens after war has ceased, and the various alternatives to war. Other sections explore civil war and revolution, the arms trade, economic and political systems, and post-conflict reconstruction and nation building. Policymakers as well as academics and students of political science, economics, public policy and sociology will find this volume to be an engaging and enlightening read.
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Chapter 26: Sanctions as Alternatives to War

David Cortright and George A. Lopez


David Cortright and George A. Lopez 26.1 INTRODUCTION Manipulating trade relations and offering or withholding economic assistance, private investment and favorable trade conditions have been tools by which regimes have long been able to influence each other’s policies. Authors such as Albert Hirschman, David Baldwin and Richard Rosecrance have described the important role that such economic incentives and sanctions have played in international affairs. (Hirschman 1980; Baldwin 1985; Rosecrance 1987). In recent decades, the use of economic sanctions and incentives has become quite frequent. Since World War II, the United States has employed sanctions and other tools of economic influence frequently in the conduct of foreign affairs. In the post-Cold War era the UN Security Council has become increasingly active in imposing multilateral sanctions. In the 1990s, the European Union and the British Commonwealth utilized economic sanctions and incentives as primary means of influencing other states. In recent years, the Organization of American States and the African Union have also utilized multilateral sanctions against their own members. Sanctions are imposed for a wide range of foreign policy purposes that in earlier days would have drawn states into war. In recent decades, nations have adopted sanctions to promote democracy and human rights, to enforce international law and resolutions of the UN Security Council, to prevent military aggression and armed conflict, to encourage military demobilization and post-conflict reconstruction and to counter terrorism and prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. They are means of applying pressure against wrongdoers without incurring the costs and...

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