The International Handbook on Private Enforcement of Competition Law
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The International Handbook on Private Enforcement of Competition Law

Edited by Albert A. Foer and Jonathan W. Cuneo

With the international community on the brink of an explosion of private remedies for violation of national competition laws, this timely Handbook provides state-of-the-art analysis of the private enforcement of competition laws across the globe. Private enforcement of antitrust is becoming a significant component of competition policy laws worldwide; today, more than a hundred jurisdictions have adopted market regimes operating within a framework of competition law, providing a varied base for developing ways by which persons injured by anticompetitive conduct will (or will not) be able to obtain remedies.
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Chapter 28: Overview of Asia and Africa

Byung Geon Lee and Ke Li


Byung Geon Lee1 and Ke Li2 The intensity of private antitrust enforcement across the Asian and African nations has a wide range of variation. In Australia, Israel, Japan, and Korea, the number of private damages actions has gradually increased. Many private actions in those nations are initiated following the competition agencies’ finding of antitrust violations. For example, the Korea Fair Trade Commission (KFTC) annually finds approximately 40 cartels guilty, and private parties have commonly brought damages actions after the KFTC’s corrective measures. In contrast, private antitrust enforcement of many other countries in these regions remains inactive in tandem with the comparatively weak public enforcement regimes. To the extent that private enforcement is restrained, this seems to be in large part the result of the limited ability of private parties to gather evidence independently. Asian and African nations’ private antitrust enforcement procedures also have broad variations. For example, class action procedures, which can provide workable litigation mechanisms for the mass wrongs of competition law, are varying. The opt-out class action mechanism is available in Australia, Israel, Indonesia, and South Africa; however, no antitrust damages actions have been filed in the latter two countries utilizing this optout device as of May 2009. Most other Asian and African jurisdictions have a traditional opt-in class action mechanism, under which each injured party must individually express his or her interest in participating in the action. As a third method, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan permit an association lawsuit which certain qualified associations can bring on...

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