Handbook of Creative Cities
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Handbook of Creative Cities

Edited by David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson and Charlotta Mellander

With the publication of The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida in 2002, the ‘creative city’ became the new hot topic among urban policymakers, planners and economists. Florida has developed one of three path-breaking theories about the relationship between creative individuals and urban environments. The economist Åke E. Andersson and the psychologist Dean Simonton are the other members of this ‘creative troika’. In the Handbook of Creative Cities, Florida, Andersson and Simonton appear in the same volume for the first time. The expert contributors in this timely Handbook extend their insights with a varied set of theoretical and empirical tools. The diversity of the contributions reflect the multidisciplinary nature of creative city theorizing, which encompasses urban economics, economic geography, social psychology, urban sociology, and urban planning. The stated policy implications are equally diverse, ranging from libertarian to social democratic visions of our shared creative and urban future.
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Chapter 5: Clusters, Networks and Creativity

Charlie Karlsson


Charlie Karlsson In the last decade we have seen a rapidly increasing interest in creativity among researchers. A search using Google Scholar for the concept creativity for 1990 generates about 20 000 hits, while a similar search for 2008 generates more than three times as many hits. For the disciplines of business administration, finance and economics the number of hits increases about four times during the same period. There are strong reasons to assume that the publications on the emergence, importance and behaviour of the creative class by Richard Florida have substantially contributed to this increased interest.1 However, it is important to remember that creativity has always been an important human activity in all fields of human activity, stretching from the generation of new knowledge, new inventions, innovations and new enterprises to the generation of new artistic expressions. Today, creativity is more than ever before looked upon as a crucial resource not only for the cultural sector, but also for contemporary economic development and indeed, for personal growth (O’Connor, 2007). Hence creativity does not only reside in the arts, the cultural industries and/or the media industries, but it has become a central and increasingly important input into all sectors where design and content form the basis for competitive advantage (Flew, 2002). Creativity is critical for research. The production of new knowledge implies that creative processes must take place somewhere in the research process. In particular, creativity is related to innovation, which increasingly is seen as the key to economic competitiveness....

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