Handbook of Input–Output Analysis
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Handbook of Input–Output Analysis

Edited by Thijs ten Raa

In this authoritative Handbook, leading experts from international statistical offices and universities explain in detail the treatment and role of input-output statistics in the System of National Accounts. Furthermore, they address the derivation of input-output coefficients for the purpose of economic and environmental modeling, the building of applied general equilibrium models, the use of these models for efficiency analysis, and the extensions to stochastic and dynamic input-output analysis. As well as revealing and exploring the theoretical foundations, the Handbook also acts as a useful guide for practitioners.
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Chapter 6: Multipliers, factor contents, and productivity

Thijs ten Raa


The theory underlying indirect, multiplier effects of final consumption is detailed in this chapter. The classical example is the computation of the factors of production, first and foremost labor, embodied in final products. These embodiments are determined by taking the Leontief inverse of the matrix of direct input-output coefficients. Conditions on the input-output matrix which are both necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the multiplier effects are presented. Further multiplier effects due to household consumption are incorporated. The less labor is embodied in a product of an economy, the more productive the economy is in making that product. The relationship between input-output analysis and productivity measurement is detailed. The neoclassical approach of measuring total factor productivity by measuring input reductions using fixed prices has been criticized and alternative "effective" industry productivity growth rates have been presented in the input-output literature, but the two approaches will be demonstrated to be perfectly consistent. The analysis is also shown to encompass inefficiency measures and service productivity measures.

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